Labour Law of India - A Brief Explanation

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Through this article, we will discuss Indian Labor Law. The Indian Labor Law was formulated in 2005 by consolidating three different laws: the Trade Union Act of 1919, the Industrial Disputes Act of 1947, and the Labor Act of 1948.

Labour Law of India

Indian Labor Law falls under the concurrent list, which means both the state government and the central government can enact laws. The rationale behind implementing Labor Law was to establish regulations between the employer and the workers. 

This ensures that the company owner cannot exploit the workers, and the union formed among the laborers has a certain level of influence on the owner, preventing any undue pressure. Let's delve into the specifics of Labor Law in India.

Labour Law of India

Basic Rights of Indian Workers

Most of the Indian labor laws are inclined towards workers because the law assumes that workers are generally economically disadvantaged and may struggle to assert their rights against the financial power of employers.

The Indian Labor Law outlines four main principles. Firstly, no company owner can employ bonded labor. In earlier times, if a person took a loan, they were obligated to work for the lender until the entire debt was repaid. This practice, known as bonded labor, is prohibited under Indian labor law.

Secondly, it is mandatory to provide compensation to workers. In case of a worker's death, their family members must be compensated. 

If a worker becomes disabled or is injured while working, the employer is responsible for covering the treatment expenses and providing compensation.

Thirdly, if employees are working in an occupied building, there should be safety measures in place, such as safety nets or protection against sunlight. Various building rules are established to ensure worker safety.

Lastly, it is mandatory to pay salaries to workers on time. These four rights are considered the basic rights of any worker.

Additional Features of Indian Labor Law

1. No employer can make any worker work for more than 8 hours. A 30-minute break for lunch is mandatory during the work period.

2. If a worker works overtime, they are entitled to double the salary for the overtime hours.

3. Pregnant women cannot be assigned risky work, and they must be granted leave for one month before and one month after delivery, with full salary during this period.

4. Workers have the right to form unions in any office, enabling collective bargaining if disagreements arise.

5. Employers must assign tasks according to the agreed-upon job description, ensuring that workers perform the work for which they were hired.

6. Employers must provide a clean and safe working environment for their workers.

Contract Labor

In contract labor, both the company owner and the worker can enter into an agreement, benefiting both parties. For example, if a laborer signs a contract to work for a company for five years, the employer cannot terminate that employee before the agreed period.

Contract laborers enjoy the same rights as permanent workers, including salary benefits.

Important Acts of Labour Law

  • Minimum Wages Act, 1948
  • Payment of Wages Act, 1936
  • Equal Remuneration Act, 1976
  • Employee State Insurance Act
  • Bonus Act, 1965
  • Gratuity Act, 1972
  • Labour Welfare Fund
  • Shop & Establishment Act
  • Provident Fund Act, 1952
  • Industrial Dispute Act 
  • Maternity Benefit Act

Minimum Wages Act, 1948

The Minimum Wages Act, of 1948 in India is a significant piece of legislation aimed at preventing the exploitation of labor and ensuring that workers receive fair remuneration for their services. Here are some important points of the Minimum Wages Act:
  • The government (central or state) is empowered to fix and revise the rates of wages for different categories of employment. Wages can be fixed based on skills, geographical areas, and types of employment.
  • Minimum rates of wages may consist of a basic rate of wages and a special allowance at a rate to be adjusted at prescribed intervals.
  • The act allows for the fixation of the number of hours of work that constitute a normal working day. Overtime rates are prescribed for work done beyond the normal working hours.
  • Wages must be paid at such intervals and in such manner as may be prescribed, whether on a daily, weekly, fortnightly, or monthly basis.
  • Employers are required to maintain and preserve records and registers containing particulars of employees, the work performed by them, and receipts by them.
  • The act authorizes the appointment of inspectors who have the authority to enter and inspect premises, examine records, and take statements from employers and employees.
  • For employees paid on a piece rate basis, the appropriate government may fix time rates to ensure fair compensation.
  • Provisions are made regarding the circumstances under which deductions can be made from wages and the extent to which such deductions can be made.
  • Provisions are made regarding the imposition of fines, the purposes for which fines may be imposed, and the limits on fines.
  • The act applies to employees in scheduled employment specified by the appropriate government. Both central and state governments have the authority to notify and revise scheduled employment.
  • The appropriate government may appoint advisory boards and committees to advise on various matters related to the fixation and revision of wages.
  • Penalties are prescribed for offenses such as non-payment or less payment of wages, violations of record-keeping requirements, and other non-compliance issues.
  • The act emphasizes the principle of equal pay for equal work without discrimination based on gender.
Compliance with the Minimum Wages Act is crucial for employers to ensure fair and just wages for workers and to avoid legal implications. The act plays a vital role in protecting the interests of laborers and promoting social justice in the employment sector.

Payment of Wages Act, 1936

The Payment of Wages Act, of 1936 is a labor legislation in India that governs the payment of wages to employees and sets standards for timely and full payment. Here are key features and provisions of the Payment of Wages Act:
  • The act applies to all employees whose wages do not exceed a specific amount, as notified by the appropriate government.
  • Wages must be paid regularly, and the interval between two wage payments should not exceed one month.
  • The act prescribes the time within which wages should be paid after the end of the wage period.
  • Wages must be paid in legal tender, such as coins or currency notes.
  • Payment can also be made by check or by crediting the wages to the employee's bank account, subject to the employee's written authorization.
  • The act allows certain deductions from wages, including those for fines, absence from duty, accommodation provided by the employer, and other authorized purposes.
  • The total deductions should not exceed 75% of the wages.
  • Certain deductions are prohibited under the act, such as deductions for the supply of tools and equipment, or deductions for damage or loss.
  • Employers are required to maintain and preserve records and registers containing particulars of employees, the work performed by them, and receipts by them.
  • The act authorizes the appointment of inspectors who have the authority to enter and inspect premises, examine records, and take statements from employers and employees.
  • Any deduction made or delayed payment can be the subject of a claim by the employee.
  • Claims must be made within six months from the date on which the deduction was made or from the date of the payment of wages.
  • Penalties are prescribed for offenses such as unauthorized deductions and delayed payments.
  • Penalties may include fines and, in certain cases, imprisonment.
  • The appropriate government has the power to fix, review, and revise the wage periods.
  • The act emphasizes the principle of equal remuneration for male and female employees for the same work or work of a similar nature.
  • The act provides mechanisms for the redressal of grievances related to unauthorized deductions or delayed payments through the filing of claims.
The Payment of Wages Act is designed to ensure that workers receive their wages on time and without unauthorized deductions, promoting fair labor practices and protecting the interests of employees. Employers are required to comply with the provisions of this act to maintain fair employment conditions.

The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976

The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 is an important legislation in India aimed at preventing discrimination in the payment of wages to male and female employees for the same work or work of a similar nature. The act promotes the principle of equal pay for equal work and seeks to eliminate gender-based wage disparities. Here are key features and provisions of the Equal Remuneration Act, of 1976:
  • The act applies to all employers and employees across various sectors and industries.
  • The fundamental principle of the act is that men and women performing the same work or work of a similar nature should receive equal remuneration.
  • Work is considered as equal when it is identical or similar in nature, involves similar skill, effort, and responsibility, and is performed under similar working conditions.
  • The act prohibits employers from discriminating against employees based on gender in matters of wages or any other conditions of service.
  • Employers are prohibited from publishing any advertisement that indicates a preference for or discourages the employment of a person of a particular gender.
  • The act allows for the constitution of advisory committees at the central and state levels to advise on matters related to the application of the act.
  • The act authorizes the appointment of inspectors who have the authority to enter and inspect premises, examine records, and take statements from employers and employees.
  • Employees who believe they are being discriminated against in terms of remuneration can file complaints with the appropriate authorities.
  • Authorities appointed under the act have the power to inquire into complaints, hear evidence, and take appropriate action against employers violating the provisions of the act.
  • Penalties are prescribed for offenses such as paying unequal remuneration for equal work or publishing discriminatory advertisements.
  • Penalties may include fines and, in certain cases, imprisonment.
  • Employers are required to maintain records and registers containing particulars of employees, the work performed by them, and details of remuneration paid.
  • The act provides mechanisms for the redressal of grievances related to unequal remuneration through the filing of complaints with the appropriate authorities.
The Equal Remuneration Act is crucial in promoting gender equality in the workplace and ensuring that women receive fair and equal pay for the same work as their male counterparts. Employers are obligated to comply with the provisions of this act to create a more equitable work environment.

Employee State Insurance Act

The Employees' State Insurance Act, 1948 is a social security and health insurance legislation in India that provides certain benefits to employees in case of sickness, maternity, injury, and for certain other matters related to their health and well-being. 

The act is administered by the Employees' State Insurance Corporation (ESIC), a statutory body created under the act. Here are key features and provisions of the Employees' State Insurance Act:

  •  The act applies to employees earning wages up to a specified limit and working in certain categories of establishments, as notified by the government.
  • Both employees and employers are required to make contributions to the Employees' State Insurance (ESI) Fund. The contribution rates are specified by the government.
  • The act provides several benefits to insured employees, including medical benefits, sickness benefits, maternity benefits, disablement benefits, dependent benefits, and funeral expenses.
  •  Insured employees and their family members are entitled to medical benefits, including outpatient treatment, hospitalization, and specialist consultations.
  •  Sickness benefits are provided to insured employees who are temporarily unable to work due to illness and are certified by an authorized medical practitioner.
  •  Female employees are entitled to maternity benefits, including paid leave and medical expenses related to childbirth and pregnancy.
  •  Disablement benefits are provided in the event of an employment-related injury that results in partial or total disablement.
  •  In the case of an employee's death due to employment injury or occupational disease, dependent family members are entitled to benefits.
  •  Funeral expenses are provided in the event of the death of an insured employee.
  • The Employees' State Insurance Corporation operates a network of hospitals and dispensaries to provide medical services to insured employees and their dependents.
  •  The act provides for the adjudication of disputes related to coverage, contributions, and benefits through the ESI Courts.
  • Penalties are prescribed for offenses such as non-payment of contributions, non-compliance with the provisions of the act, and making false statements.
  •  The Employees' State Insurance Corporation, under the Ministry of Labour and Employment, administers the ESI scheme and ensures its proper implementation.
The Employees' State Insurance Act is a comprehensive social security measure designed to protect the interests of industrial workers by providing them with medical and cash benefits in times of need. Both employers and employees are obligated to comply with the provisions of the act, contributing to the ESI Fund to ensure the availability of benefits.

Bonus Act, 1965

The Payment of Bonus Act, of 1965, is a crucial piece of labor legislation in India that ensures the payment of a bonus to eligible employees as a share in the profits earned by the employer. Here are key features and provisions of the Payment of Bonus Act, of 1965:
  • The act applies to every establishment in which 20 or more persons are employed on any day during an accounting year.
  • Employees with a salary or wage up to a specified amount, as notified by the government, are eligible for the bonus.
  • The bonus payable to an employee is calculated as a percentage of the salary or wage earned by the employee.
  • The percentage is determined based on the allocable surplus, which is the amount available for distribution as a bonus.
  • Allocable surplus is calculated by deducting certain statutory and permissible deductions from the gross profits.
  • Every employee is entitled to a minimum bonus, even if there is no allocable surplus. The minimum bonus is a certain percentage of the salary or wage.
  • The maximum bonus payable to an employee is capped at 20% of the salary or wage.
  • The bonus must be paid within eight months from the close of the accounting year.
  • The act allows for the set-on and set-off of allocable surplus and provides for the adjustment of excessive bonuses paid in the previous years.
  • Certain deductions, such as for losses caused by the employee's willful misconduct, are allowed from the bonus payable.
  • Disputes related to bonuses can be referred to the appropriate government or the designated authority for adjudication.
  • Employers are required to maintain records and registers containing particulars of employees, bonuses paid, and other relevant details.
  • The act allows for the constitution of advisory committees at the central and state levels to advise on matters related to the application of the act.
  • The act authorizes the appointment of inspectors who have the authority to enter and inspect premises, examine records, and take statements from employers and employees.
  • Penalties are prescribed for offenses such as failure to pay bonuses, making false statements, and obstructing inspectors.
The Payment of Bonus Act plays a significant role in ensuring that employees receive a fair share of the profits generated by the employer. It helps foster a sense of participation and goodwill among the workforce. Employers are obligated to comply with the provisions of this act to ensure the timely payment of bonuses to eligible employees.

Gratuity Act, of 1972

The Payment of Gratuity Act, of 1972 is an Indian labor law that provides a scheme for the payment of gratuity to employees in recognition of their long and meritorious service. Gratuity is a monetary benefit granted by the employer to the employee as a gesture of gratitude for the services rendered. Here are the key features and provisions of the Payment of Gratuity Act, of 1972:
  • The act applies to every establishment where ten or more employees are employed or were employed on any day of the preceding twelve months.
  • An employee becomes eligible for gratuity after completing five years of continuous service with an employer. However, gratuity can be paid before five years in case of death or disablement due to an accident or illness.
  • The last drawn salary includes basic salary and dearness allowance.
  • The maximum amount of gratuity payable under the act is ₹20 lakh. However, this limit is subject to change, and it is advisable to check the latest notifications.
  • Gratuity is payable to the employee either on retirement or resignation or on death or disablement due to accident or illness.
  • Every employee has the right to nominate a person or persons to receive the gratuity in the event of the employee's death.
  • Employers are required to take out a life insurance policy for an amount not less than the gratuity amount payable to the employee.
  • The act requires employees to give a written notice to the employer before resigning, and the employer may waive the notice period.
  • Penalties are prescribed for offenses such as failure to pay gratuity or making false statements.
  • In case of disputes related to gratuity, the act provides for the settlement through either a compromise between the employer and the employee or through adjudication by a controlling authority.
  • Gratuity can be forfeited in cases where the employee is terminated for disorderly conduct or is terminated for any act that constitutes an offense involving moral turpitude.
The Payment of Gratuity Act is an important legal provision that ensures financial security for employees after their long and dedicated service. Employers are required to comply with the provisions of this act to facilitate the timely payment of gratuity to eligible employees.

Labour Welfare Fund (LWF)

Labour Welfare Fund (LWF) is a statutory contribution that aims to promote the welfare and well-being of laborers and workers. The fund is managed by state governments in India, and the provisions related to the Labour Welfare Fund may vary from state to state. The primary objective of LWF is to provide financial assistance and support to workers and their families in times of need. Here are some key points related to the Labour Welfare Fund:
  • LWF applies to establishments and workers falling under the purview of the respective state's Labour Welfare Fund Act.
  • Both employers and employees contribute to the Labour Welfare Fund. The contributions are usually a fixed percentage of the wages.
  • The fund is used for the welfare of workers and their families. It may cover a range of welfare activities, including health and medical benefits, education, housing, and social security measures.
  • The benefits provided under the Labour Welfare Fund may include financial assistance during sickness, maternity, disablement, and other contingencies. It may also cover educational scholarships for children of workers.
  • Employers are typically required to register under the Labour Welfare Fund Act and ensure regular compliance with the contribution requirements.
  • The rates of contribution by both employers and employees are prescribed by the respective state's Labour Welfare Fund Act. The rates may vary based on factors such as the number of employees and the type of industry.
  • The funds collected under LWF are utilized for the implementation of welfare schemes and programs for the benefit of workers. The funds may be used to establish and maintain welfare facilities.
  • Some states may provide exemptions or set thresholds for certain categories of establishments or workers.
  • The contributions to the Labour Welfare Fund are typically made through designated banks or online portals, as specified by the state government.
  • Employers are required to maintain records of contributions and submit reports as per the guidelines of the Labour Welfare Fund Act.
  • Non-compliance with the provisions of the Labour Welfare Fund Act may attract penalties and legal consequences.
Employers and employees need to be aware of the specific provisions of the Labour Welfare Fund Act applicable in their respective states. The nature and scope of welfare activities covered by the fund may vary, and individuals should refer to the relevant state legislation for accurate and up-to-date information.

The Shop and Establishment Act

The Shop and Establishment Act is a state-level legislation in India that regulates the working conditions and terms of employment in shops, commercial establishments, and other places of work. The purpose of this act is to ensure the welfare of employees and to regulate the hours of work, holidays, leave policies and other employment-related matters. 

Each state in India has its own Shop and Establishment Act, and the specific rules and regulations may vary from state to state. Here are some key features commonly found in these acts:

  • The act applies to shops, commercial establishments, and other similar workplaces, excluding factories.
  • Employers are typically required to register their establishments under the Shop and Establishment Act within a specified period after the commencement of operations.
  • The act prescribes the normal working hours, daily and weekly rest intervals, and overtime rates for employees working beyond the regular hours.
  • The act mandates a weekly holiday (usually Sunday) for employees and may specify conditions for working on such days.
  • The act often specifies the provisions related to annual leave, sick leave, casual leave, and other types of leave entitlements for employees.
  • The act may contain provisions related to the employment of women, including restrictions on night shifts and provisions for maternity benefits.
  • The act prohibits the employment of children below a certain age, ensuring protection against child labor.
  • Employers are required to maintain records and registers containing details of employees, working hours, leave records, and other relevant information.
  • Employers are typically required to display a notice at the workplace containing information about working hours, holidays, and other terms of employment.
  • The competent authorities appointed under the act have the power to inspect establishments to ensure compliance with the provisions.
  • The act may specify conditions and procedures for the closure of an establishment and the obligations of the employer in such cases.
  • Non-compliance with the provisions of the Shop and Establishment Act may result in penalties, fines, and legal consequences for employers.
  • The specific rules and regulations under the Shop and Establishment Act can vary from state to state, and employers need to comply with the rules of the state where their establishment is located.
Employers and employees need to be aware of the specific provisions of the Shop and Establishment Act applicable in their respective states. Compliance with these regulations is essential to ensure a fair and healthy working environment and to avoid legal implications.

Provident Funds Act, 1952

The Employees' Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 is a social security legislation in India that establishes a provident fund for the financial security of employees. The act is administered by the Employees' Provident Fund Organization (EPFO), which operates under the Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India. Here are key features and provisions of the Provident Fund Act, 1952:

  • The act applies to establishments employing 20 or more persons, engaged in specified industries and classes of establishments.
  • Both the employer and the employee contribute to the Employees' Provident Fund (EPF). The current contribution rate is 12% of the employee's basic wages, dearness allowance, and retaining allowance.
  • The Employees' Provident Fund Scheme provides a retirement benefit in the form of a provident fund. The accumulated fund is payable to the employee upon retirement, resignation, or at the age of 58.
  • The Employees' Pension Scheme provides a pension benefit to employees. The employer contributes 8.33% of the employee's wages to the Pension Fund.
  • The EDLI Scheme provides life insurance coverage to employees. It is linked to the provident fund and offers a lump sum payment in case of the employee's death during the service period.
  • Employees are required to make nominations indicating the persons to whom the provident fund accumulations should be paid in case of the employee's death.
  • Employees can withdraw the provident fund accumulations in full on retirement, resignation, or after reaching the age of 58.
  • Provident fund accumulations are transferable when an employee changes jobs, allowing for continuity of benefits.
  • Interest is credited to the provident fund accumulations on an annual basis. The rate of interest is declared by the government.
  • The EPFO has the authority to inspect establishments, examine records, and ensure compliance with the provisions of the act.
  • Penalties are prescribed for offenses such as non-payment of contributions, providing false information, and obstructing inspectors.
  • Disputes related to the applicability of the act and other matters can be referred to the EPFO for adjudication. Appeals can be made to the Employees' Provident Fund Appellate Tribunal.
The Employees' Provident Fund Act, 1952, plays a crucial role in providing financial security to employees after their retirement. Employers are mandated to comply with the provisions of the act, including making timely contributions and providing necessary information to the EPFO. Employees, on the other hand, benefit from the long-term savings and insurance coverage provided by the act.

The Industrial Disputes Act, 1947

The Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, is an important piece of legislation in India that aims to provide a mechanism for the prevention and resolution of industrial disputes. The act outlines the rights and responsibilities of both employers and employees, as well as the procedures for handling disputes arising in the course of employment. 

The primary objective is to maintain industrial peace and promote harmonious relations between employers and employees. Here are key features and provisions of the Industrial Disputes Act:

  • The act applies to all industrial establishments and covers both the organized and unorganized labor sectors.
  • An industrial dispute may arise between employers and employees between employers and workmen or between workmen and workmen. It may involve disputes related to employment conditions, terms of employment, or the interpretation of agreements.
  • The act provides for the establishment of works committees at the enterprise level to promote better relations and facilitate the settlement of disputes.
  • The government may appoint conciliation officers to mediate and promote a settlement between parties involved in an industrial dispute.
  • Boards of conciliation may be appointed to investigate and settle industrial disputes, particularly those that cannot be resolved by conciliation officers.
  • In case of a failure of conciliation or where it appears that an industrial dispute exists, the appropriate government may refer the dispute to a court of inquiry for investigation.
  • Adjudication is the process of resolving disputes through a formal legal procedure. Labor courts and industrial tribunals are empowered to adjudicate on industrial disputes referred to them.
  • The act regulates the right to strike and lockout. Certain procedures and conditions must be followed before engaging in a legal strike or lockout.
  • The act provides for the conditions under which employees may be laid off or retrenched by employers, and it outlines the compensation payable in such cases.
  • In case of retrenchment, eligible employees are entitled to compensation based on their years of service.
  • The act identifies and prohibits unfair labor practices by both employers and trade unions.
  • Penalties are prescribed for offenses such as illegal strikes, lockouts, or failure to implement the decisions of labor courts.
  • The act allows for the enforcement of settlements and awards reached through conciliation, adjudication, or other legal procedures.
The Industrial Disputes Act, of 1947, serves as a comprehensive framework for the resolution of conflicts between employers and employees in the industrial sector. Its provisions are aimed at promoting industrial harmony and providing a structured mechanism for resolving disputes, thereby contributing to the overall stability of industrial relations in the country.

The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961

The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961, is an Indian legislation that aims to regulate the employment conditions of women during and after childbirth by providing them with maternity benefits. The act applies to women working in certain establishments and seeks to ensure the health and well-being of pregnant and nursing mothers. Here are key features and provisions of the Maternity Benefit Act:
  • The act applies to every establishment employing 10 or more persons and includes factories, mines, plantations, shops, and other specified establishments.
  • A woman employee is eligible for maternity benefits if she has worked in the establishment for at least 80 days in the 12 months preceding her expected date of delivery.
  • The act provides for a maternity leave of up to 26 weeks for a woman employee. This includes eight weeks of leave before the expected delivery date and up to 18 weeks of leave after childbirth.
  • During the maternity leave period, the woman employee is entitled to receive maternity benefit pay, which is calculated at the rate of her average daily wage.
  • In case the employer does not provide medical facilities, the woman employee is entitled to receive a medical bonus as specified in the act.
  • In case of a miscarriage or medical termination of pregnancy, a woman employee is entitled to six weeks of leave with full wages.
  • Every woman who returns to work after maternity leave is entitled to two breaks in the course of her daily work for nursing her child until the child attains the age of 15 months.
  • A woman employee is required to give notice of her pregnancy to the employer in a prescribed manner.
  • A woman on maternity leave cannot be dismissed during or on account of her absence from work.
  • The act provides for the option of working from home for certain categories of employees, subject to mutual agreement between the employer and the employee.
  • Establishments employing 50 or more employees are required to provide crèche facilities, or access to a crèche facility within a prescribed distance, for nursing mothers.
  • The act provides for the appointment of inspectors to ensure compliance with its provisions.
  • Penalties are prescribed for offenses such as non-compliance with the provisions of the Maternity Benefit Act.
The Maternity Benefit Act is a crucial piece of legislation that aims to protect the health and employment rights of women during and after pregnancy. Employers are obligated to comply with the provisions of this act, and any contravention can lead to penalties and legal consequences. The act plays a significant role in promoting the well-being of women in the workforce.

Labor laws in India are a set of laws and regulations that govern the terms and conditions of employment for workers in the country. These laws are designed to safeguard the interests of employees, ensure fair and just employment practices, and maintain a balance between employers and workers.

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Barristery.in: Labour Law of India - A Brief Explanation
Labour Law of India - A Brief Explanation
The Indian Labor Law was formulated in 2005 by consolidating three different laws: the Trade Union Act of 1919, the Industrial Disputes Act of 1947,
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