Data Protection and Data Privacy Laws in India - Explained


Welcome to, on the vital topic of Data Protection and Data Privacy Laws in India. In an era where information is as precious as gold, understanding how your personal data is protected and your privacy upheld is crucial. Join us as we dive deep into the legal frameworks that safeguard the personal information of billions. 

From the Information Technology Act, 2000, to the landmark Supreme Court rulings, and the much-anticipated Personal Data Protection Bill, we'll explore how India is shaping its stance on data security and privacy rights in the digital age. Whether you're a concerned citizen, a data privacy enthusiast, or a business navigating the complexities of compliance, this article will equip you with the knowledge you need. Stay tuned as we unfold the layers of data protection and privacy laws in India, ensuring your right to privacy is respected and protected.

What is meaning of data protection and data privacy

Data protection and data privacy are two interrelated concepts that deal with the handling, processing, and safeguarding of personal information. While they are often used interchangeably, they have distinct meanings:

Data Protection:

Data protection refers to the practices, safeguards, and legal requirements designed to ensure the privacy and security of personal data. It involves measures and strategies that organizations and governments implement to prevent unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration, and destruction of personal information. Data protection encompasses a range of technical and administrative controls that include encryption, access control, regular security assessments, and compliance with legal frameworks that govern the collection, storage, processing, and transfer of personal data.

Data Privacy:

Data privacy, on the other hand, concerns individuals' rights to control their personal information and how it is used. It relates to the respect for and autonomy over personal data, including the consent to share information, awareness of data collection practices, and the ability to access, correct, or request the deletion of one's data. Data privacy laws and regulations are established to protect individuals' rights and personal autonomy, giving them control over their personal information and ensuring that entities that handle personal data do so in a fair, legal, and transparent manner.

Relationship Between Data Protection and Data Privacy:

Data Protection as a Means: Data protection can be seen as a means to achieve data privacy. By implementing robust data protection measures, organizations ensure that personal data is handled in a way that respects individuals' privacy and complies with legal standards.

Legal and Regulatory Frameworks: Many countries and regions have enacted data protection and privacy laws to safeguard individuals' data. Examples include the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in the European Union, the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) in the United States, and the proposed Personal Data Protection Bill in India. These laws set out principles for data processing, rights for individuals, and obligations for data handlers.

Ethical and Trust Considerations: Beyond compliance, data protection and privacy are also about building trust between individuals and organizations. By respecting privacy and protecting personal data, organizations can enhance their reputation and relationships with customers, employees, and partners.

In summary, data protection involves the technical and organizational measures taken to secure personal data against misuse, while data privacy focuses on individuals' rights and expectations regarding how their personal data is collected, processed, and shared. Together, they form the foundation of how personal information should be managed in a digital society, balancing individuals' rights with the benefits of data use.

Data Protection and Data Privacy Laws in India

History of data protection laws 

The evolution of data protection laws has been a response to the rapid advancements in technology and the increasing digitization of society. Let's see how data protection laws have evolved over time:

Early Days (Pre-1970s): Initial concerns about data protection emerged with the advent of computer databases. Early discussions focused on the potential misuse of personal data but were limited in scope due to the nascent stage of digital data processing.

The 1970s and 1980s - The Foundation: The first major data protection legislation was enacted in Hesse, a state in West Germany, in 1970. This was followed by Sweden's Data Act of 1973, the world's first national data protection law. These early laws laid the groundwork for future data protection by establishing key principles like data minimization, purpose limitation, and individuals' rights regarding their data.

The 1990s - Global Awareness and the Directive 95/46/EC: The 1990s saw a growing awareness of the need for comprehensive data protection laws. The European Union (EU) played a pivotal role with the adoption of the Data Protection Directive (Directive 95/46/EC) in 1995. This Directive harmonized data protection laws across EU member states, introducing principles such as the requirement for explicit consent, the right to access personal data, and the right to object to data processing.

The 2000s - Expansion and National Laws: Countries around the world began enacting or updating their data protection laws to reflect the changing digital landscape. The focus expanded from merely regulating data processing to addressing issues like cross-border data transfers, data breach notifications, and the rights of individuals to control their personal information.

The 2010s - The GDPR and Beyond: The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which replaced the Data Protection Directive, came into effect in the EU in 2018. The GDPR is one of the most comprehensive data protection regulations globally, significantly impacting how businesses collect, store, and process personal data. It introduced stricter consent requirements, substantial fines for non-compliance, and the right to be forgotten, among other provisions.

The 2020s and Future: The evolution of data protection laws continues as technology advances. Issues like artificial intelligence, big data analytics, and the Internet of Things pose new challenges for data protection. Countries are revising their laws to address these challenges, focusing on individual rights, transparency, and accountability. For instance, India is working on its Personal Data Protection Bill, which draws inspiration from the GDPR.

The evolution of data protection laws reflects a growing global consensus on the importance of protecting personal data in an increasingly digital world. As technology continues to evolve, so too will the laws designed to safeguard privacy and personal data.

History of Data Protection Law in India

The history of data protection law in India is relatively recent compared to some other jurisdictions, with significant developments occurring over the past few decades. 

Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act): India's first step towards data protection was the enactment of the Information Technology Act in 2000. The IT Act was primarily designed to deal with cyber crimes and electronic commerce but included provisions related to data protection and privacy under Section 43A and Section 72A, which were introduced later through amendments. These sections imposed responsibilities on corporate bodies to protect sensitive personal data or information and established penalties for breach of privacy.

Privacy Rulings by the Supreme Court: Although the IT Act provided a basic framework for data protection, comprehensive data privacy protection laws were still lacking. The turning point came with the Supreme Court's judgment in the case of Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) vs Union of India (2017), where the court unanimously declared the right to privacy as a fundamental right protected under the Constitution of India. This landmark judgment set the stage for more robust data protection legislation.

Personal Data Protection Bill (PDP Bill): Inspired by global standards, particularly the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the Indian government drafted the Personal Data Protection Bill. First introduced in 2019, the Bill sought to establish a comprehensive data protection framework for India, covering the processing of personal and sensitive personal data by government and private entities. The Bill has undergone several revisions and has been the subject of extensive public and parliamentary debate.

Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023: Progressing from the initial drafts and addressing various stakeholders' concerns, India is moving towards enacting the Digital Personal Data Protection Act. This Act is expected to replace the relevant sections of the IT Act and introduce a more detailed and structured approach to data protection, including data principal rights, data fiduciary obligations, data protection authority establishment, and specific provisions for cross-border data transfer, among other aspects.

Sectoral Regulations: Apart from these, India has several sector-specific regulations that address data protection. For example, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has issued guidelines on data protection for the banking sector, and the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) has done the same for the insurance sector.

The evolution of data protection law in India reflects a growing recognition of the importance of data privacy and the need for a comprehensive legal framework to protect individuals' rights in the digital age. With the anticipated enactment of the Digital Personal Data Protection Act, India is poised to take a significant step forward in its data protection and privacy law regime.

Data protection and Data Privacy Laws in India

Data protection and data privacy laws in India are primarily governed by the Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act), along with its rules and amendments, especially the Information Technology (Reasonable Security Practices and Procedures and Sensitive Personal Data or Information) Rules, 2011. However, as of my last update in April 2023, India was on the cusp of adopting more comprehensive data protection legislation, known as the Personal Data Protection Bill (PDP Bill), which had been in discussion and revision for several years.

Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act) and Amendments:

IT Act, 2000: The primary law in India for dealing with cybercrime and electronic commerce. It provides a legal framework to ensure that electronic records and electronic commerce are recognized legally. It also defines cybercrimes and prescribes penalties for them.

Information Technology (Amendment) Act, 2008: This amendment introduced sections on data protection and privacy, such as Section 43A, which holds corporate bodies responsible for implementing and maintaining reasonable security practices to protect sensitive personal data or information they possess or deal with.

Information Technology (Reasonable Security Practices and Procedures and Sensitive Personal Data or Information) Rules, 2011: These rules, under Section 43A of the IT Act, define sensitive personal data and prescribe reasonable security practices, procedures, and standards for their protection.

Personal Data Protection Bill (PDP Bill):

The PDP Bill has been in discussion to establish a comprehensive data protection framework for India. It aims to protect individuals' privacy concerning their personal data, specify the flow and usage of personal data, create a Data Protection Authority, and address mechanisms for data protection and privacy.

The bill draws inspiration from the GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation) of the European Union but is tailored to meet the specific needs and circumstances of India.

As of my last update, the bill was undergoing various stages of discussion and revision in the legislature. It is important to check the latest updates for any progress or enactment of the bill.

Key Features of Proposed Data Protection Framework:

  • The PDP Bill emphasizes consent of the data principal (the person to whom the data relates) for data processing.
  • It may require storing copies of certain types of personal data within India.
  • The establishment of a regulatory authority to monitor and enforce data protection laws.
  • The bill is expected to include rights for individuals, such as the right to access, correction, and erasure of their personal data.

Information Technology Act, 2000 and its rules provide the current legal framework for data protection, with penalties for unauthorized access, data breach, and non-compliance.

The Data Protection Authority (DPA), once established under the PDP Bill, would be responsible for ensuring compliance, handling grievances, and imposing penalties for violations.

While the Information Technology Act, 2000, and its amendments currently govern data protection and privacy in India, the evolving landscape, highlighted by the anticipated Personal Data Protection Bill, indicates a move towards a more comprehensive and structured approach to data privacy. Stakeholders should stay updated on the latest legislative developments to ensure compliance and protect individuals' data privacy rights.

The Digital Personal Data Protection Bill, 2023

The bill covers the handling of digital personal data within India, encompassing data that is either: (i) acquired through online means, or (ii) collected offline and subsequently digitized. Additionally, it extends its jurisdiction to the processing of personal data outside of India, provided such processing is aimed at offering goods or services within the Indian territory. Personal data is characterized as any information pertaining to an individual who can be identified directly or indirectly by reference to such data. The term 'processing' is defined to include any operation or series of operations, whether automated wholly or in part, applied to digital personal data. This encompasses a range of actions such as the collection, storage, utilization, and dissemination of data. we are discussed it below in a brief.

Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act) and Amendments

The Information Technology (IT) Act, 2000, is the primary law in India dealing with cybercrime and electronic commerce. Its main goal is to provide legal recognition to electronic transactions and to facilitate digital communication by providing a legal framework. Let's see an overview of the IT Act, 2000, and its significant amendments:

IT Act, 2000:

The Information Technology (IT) Act, 2000, is a landmark piece of legislation in India that was enacted to deal with issues relating to electronic commerce (e-commerce), electronic governance (e-governance), and cybercrimes. It was the first law in India explicitly focusing on the internet, digital commerce, and cyber activities.

Legal Recognition of Electronic Records and Digital Signatures: One of the primary objectives of the IT Act was to provide legal recognition to transactions carried out through electronic data exchange and other means of electronic communication. It legitimized electronic records and digital signatures, facilitating e-commerce and e-governance.

Cybercrimes and Penalties: The IT Act outlines various cybercrimes and prescribes penalties for them. These include hacking, identity theft, phishing, and spreading viruses. It also sets punishment for breaching confidentiality and privacy.

Regulatory Framework for Cyber Security: The Act established a framework for the secure use of electronic transactions, setting standards for data protection, and prescribing duties for intermediaries (like ISPs and network service providers) to ensure the security and integrity of the data and transactions.

Applicability to Corporates and Individuals: The provisions of the IT Act apply to both individuals and corporate entities, covering a broad spectrum of activities including but not limited to digital signatures, security practices and procedures, and electronic governance.

Adjudication and Appeals: The IT Act provides for the appointment of Adjudicating Officers to settle disputes arising under the Act. It also establishes a Cyber Appellate Tribunal for handling appeals against the orders of the Adjudicating Officers.

Amendments: The IT Act has been amended, notably by the Information Technology (Amendment) Act, 2008, which introduced several changes to address contemporary challenges in cyber law. These amendments included provisions for stronger privacy protections, the introduction of new types of cybercrimes, and the establishment of a more robust regulatory framework for information security.

Section 66A Controversy: One of the controversial aspects of the IT Act was Section 66A, which was aimed at punishing sending offensive messages through communication services. This section was struck down by the Supreme Court of India in 2015 in the Shreya Singhal v. Union of India case for being vague and unconstitutional as it infringed upon the freedom of speech and expression.

Data Protection: Although the IT Act included provisions for data protection, particularly under sections 43A and 72A, it has been felt that a more comprehensive law specifically dedicated to personal data protection was needed. This led to the drafting and proposal of the Personal Data Protection Bill.

The IT Act, 2000, marked the beginning of India's journey toward establishing a legal framework to address the complexities of the digital age, laying the groundwork for subsequent legislation and policy-making in the realm of cyber law and digital commerce.

Information Technology (Amendment) Act, 2008

The Information Technology (Amendment) Act, 2008, was a significant update to India's Information Technology Act of 2000. This amendment was introduced to address the evolving landscape of information technology and cybercrime, making the laws more relevant to the contemporary digital environment. Let's see the key aspects and provisions of the Information Technology (Amendment) Act, 2008:

Increased Scope for Cyber Crimes: The amendment broadened the definition and scope of cybercrimes, including identity theft, cheating by impersonation using a computer resource, and violation of privacy.

Introduction of Section 66A: This section, which was later struck down by the Supreme Court in 2015, aimed to punish sending offensive messages through communication services. It was criticized for being vague and potentially infringing on freedom of expression.

Section 67B: Focused on child pornography, it prescribed punishment for publishing or transmitting child pornographic material in electronic form.

Section 69: Granted the government powers to intercept, monitor, or decrypt any information generated, transmitted, received, or stored in any computer resource, under certain conditions deemed necessary for national security or public order. This section also detailed procedures and safeguards for such interception or monitoring.

Section 43A and Section 72A: These sections were introduced to protect sensitive personal data or information. Section 43A holds corporate bodies responsible for implementing and maintaining reasonable security practices for sensitive personal data or information they handle, while Section 72A penalizes the breach of confidentiality and privacy without the consent of the person concerned.

Establishment of a Certifying Authority for issuing digital signatures: The amendment reinforced the legal framework for digital signatures and electronic records, aiming to boost e-commerce and e-governance initiatives.


Enhanced Cyber Security Measures: By introducing stringent provisions against cybercrimes, the amendment aimed to enhance the security of the digital space and protect users from fraud and misuse.

Legal Framework for Data Protection: It laid down rules for the protection of personal data in the digital environment, although critics argued that more comprehensive legislation was needed.

Increased Government Surveillance Powers: The amendment gave broad powers to the government for surveillance and monitoring, which raised concerns regarding privacy and civil liberties.

Criticism and Controversy:

The Information Technology (Amendment) Act, 2008, faced criticism for certain provisions that were seen as potentially infringing on privacy and freedom of speech. Section 66A, in particular, was controversial and led to several high-profile arrests, which contributed to its eventual striking down by the Supreme Court for being unconstitutional.

The amendment marked a significant step in India's efforts to update its cyber laws, reflecting the need to balance security concerns with individual rights in the digital age.

Information Technology (Reasonable Security Practices and Procedures and Sensitive Personal Data or Information) Rules, 2011

The Information Technology (Reasonable Security Practices and Procedures and Sensitive Personal Data or Information) Rules, 2011, often abbreviated as the IT Rules, 2011, were formulated under Section 43A of the Information Technology (Amendment) Act, 2008. These rules were established to provide a detailed framework for the protection and handling of sensitive personal data and information by bodies corporate and any person who on behalf of the body corporate is processing such information. Below we share the key aspects of these rules:

Scope and Application: These rules apply to every corporate body or any person located in India that collects, handles, or processes sensitive personal data or information. It does not apply to personal information that is freely available or accessible in the public domain.

Sensitive Personal Data or Information: The rules define sensitive personal data to include information such as passwords, financial information, health conditions, sexual orientation, medical records, and biometric information, among others.

Reasonable Security Practices and Procedures: The rules mandate that every entity handling sensitive personal data or information must implement and maintain reasonable security practices and procedures that are commensurate with the information assets being protected. The rules also specify that an entity can be considered to have complied with reasonable security practices if they have implemented such security practices as prescribed by the rules or have a comprehensive documented information security programme and information security policies that contain managerial, technical, operational, and physical security control measures.

Privacy Policy: Entities are required to publish a privacy policy for handling or dealing in personal information and to make it available to the providers of information. This policy must clearly state the type of personal or sensitive personal data collected, the purpose of collection and usage of such information, and the security practices and policies adopted by the entity to protect such information.

Consent and Withdrawal: The rules require obtaining consent in writing through letter, fax, or email from the provider of the sensitive personal data or information regarding the purpose of usage before collection of such information. Providers have the option to withdraw their consent later.

Disclosure to Third Parties: The rules restrict entities from disclosing sensitive personal data or information to third parties, unless such disclosure has been agreed to by the individual or is necessary for compliance with a legal obligation.

Transfer of Information: Any transfer of sensitive personal data or information to another entity or a country requires the transferee to ensure the same level of data protection that is adhered to by the transferor as per these rules.

Grievance Redressal: Entities are required to appoint a Grievance Officer to address any grievances of data subjects regarding processing of their sensitive personal data or information, and the name and contact details of such officer must be made available on the website.

The IT Rules, 2011, represent a crucial step towards establishing a formal and legal framework for data protection in India. By setting out specific obligations for corporate bodies regarding the handling and protection of sensitive personal data, these rules aim to enhance privacy protections for individuals. However, these rules have also faced criticism for not being comprehensive enough and lacking in enforcement mechanisms, leading to calls for more robust data protection legislation in India.

Personal Data Protection Bill (PDP Bill)

The Personal Data Protection Bill (PDP Bill) is a proposed legislative framework in India aimed at governing the processing of personal data by government and private entities incorporated in India and abroad. The Bill seeks to establish a comprehensive data protection regime in India, ensuring the protection of individuals' privacy while also facilitating the growth of the digital economy. The Bill has undergone various drafts and revisions, with the most notable being the version introduced in 2019, which drew inspiration from global data protection laws like the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).

  • The PDP Bill applies to the processing of personal data within India, as well as to entities outside India if they process data of individuals in India.
  • The Bill outlines principles for data processing, such as lawfulness, fairness, transparency, purpose limitation, data minimization, accuracy, storage limitation, integrity and confidentiality, and accountability.
  • Individuals, referred to as data principals, are granted rights over their data, including the right to access, correct, erase, and port their data, along with the right to restrict and object to its processing.
  • The Bill emphasizes the need for explicit consent for processing personal data, except in certain conditions where processing is necessary for functions of the state, compliance with law, or for reasonable purposes specified by the Data Protection Authority.
  • The Bill proposes the establishment of a Data Protection Authority (DPA) to oversee and enforce data protection laws, adjudicate disputes, and ensure compliance by data fiduciaries.
  • Certain categories of personal data are required to be stored in India. Critical personal data, as defined by the government, must be processed and stored exclusively within the country, while sensitive personal data may be transferred outside India under certain conditions.
  • The Bill includes provisions for penalties for non-compliance, which can extend to substantial financial fines. It also provides for compensation to individuals for violations of their data protection rights.
  • The Bill allows for certain exemptions to data protection requirements for reasons such as national security, legal proceedings, research, and journalistic purposes.

The introduction of the PDP Bill marks a significant step towards establishing a robust data protection regime in India. However, it has also sparked discussions and debates regarding its implications on privacy rights, data localization requirements, regulatory burdens on businesses, and the scope of exemptions provided to government entities. The final version of the Bill, its passage through the Indian Parliament, and its implementation will be crucial in shaping India's data protection landscape.

The Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023

Personal data comprises details that can identify or make an individual identifiable. Both private sector businesses and public sector entities utilize personal data to facilitate the provision of goods and services. The analysis of personal data enables the discernment of individual preferences, which can be instrumental in tailoring personalized offerings, executing targeted marketing strategies, and formulating recommendations. 

Furthermore, the processing of personal data can support law enforcement activities. However, if personal data processing is not regulated, it can pose significant risks to individual privacy, a right acknowledged as fundamental. Unregulated data processing exposes individuals to potential harms, including financial detriment, reputational damage, and the risks associated with profiling.

India lacks a dedicated law specifically designed for data protection. The regulation of personal data usage falls under the Information Technology (IT) Act, 2000. Recognizing the need for a more focused approach to data protection, the central government established a Data Protection Committee led by Justice B.N. Srikrishna in 2017, tasked with reviewing data protection issues within the nation. 

This committee delivered its report in July 2018. Following the committee's recommendations, the Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019, was presented in the Lok Sabha in December 2019. This bill was then examined by a Joint Parliamentary Committee, which submitted its findings in December 2021. However, the Bill was retracted from Parliament in August 2022. Subsequently, in November 2022, a Draft Bill was circulated for public feedback. Finally, the Digital Personal Data Protection Bill, 2023, was introduced to Parliament in August 2023.

  • The proposed legislation will cover the processing of digital personal data in India, including data collected online or offline data that has been converted into digital format. Additionally, it will extend to processing activities outside of India if they relate to the offering of goods or services within the country.
  • Processing of personal data is permitted solely for clearly defined lawful purposes and with the individual's consent. Exceptions to the requirement for consent include instances of data voluntarily shared by the individual or data processing undertaken by the State for issuing permits, licenses, delivering benefits, and providing services.
  • Data fiduciaries are required to ensure the accuracy of personal data, protect the data from breaches, and delete the data once its intended purpose is fulfilled.
  • Individuals are granted specific rights under the Bill, such as the right to access information, request corrections or deletion of their data, and to lodge complaints.
  • The central government has the authority to exempt certain government agencies from the Bill's provisions for reasons including but not limited to national security, maintaining public order, and preventing crimes.
  • Furthermore, the Bill envisages the creation of the Data Protection Board of India, which will have the authority to enforce compliance with the Bill's stipulations.
  • The potential for the State to collect, process, and retain data beyond what is strictly necessary, under exemptions such as national security, poses a risk of infringing on the fundamental right to privacy. 
  • Furthermore, the legislation does not address the potential harms that could arise from the processing of personal data. It also omits provisions for data portability and the right to be forgotten for individuals, limiting their control over their own data.
  • The provision allowing the transfer of personal data outside India, subject to exceptions designated by the central government, may not guarantee a thorough assessment of data protection practices in recipient countries. This could undermine the safeguarding of personal data against misuse or inadequate protection abroad.
  • Additionally, the arrangement for the appointment of members to the Data Protection Board of India, with a tenure of two years subject to re-appointment, could potentially compromise the Board's independence and effectiveness in overseeing compliance with data protection standards.

The legislation permits the transference of personal data from India to other nations, barring those specifically prohibited by the central government via official notification.

Exemptions to the rules governing the rights of data subjects and the duties of data controllers (with the exception of data security measures) are outlined for particular scenarios. These scenarios encompass activities related to the (i) prevention and investigation of criminal offenses, and (ii) the assertion and defense of legal claims. Moreover, the central government holds the authority to exempt certain operations from the Bill's scope through notification, including data processing by government entities for safeguarding state security and maintaining public order, as well as activities related to research, archival purposes, or statistical analysis.

A Data Protection Board of India is to be established by the central government. This Board's responsibilities include overseeing compliance with the law, imposing penalties for violations, instructing data controllers on actions to take in response to data security breaches, and resolving complaints from individuals affected by data handling practices. Members of the Board will serve terms of two years and may be reappointed. The central government is tasked with determining the Board's composition and the procedure for selecting its members. Appeals against the Board's decisions can be made to the Telecom Disputes Settlement and Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT).

The legislation also outlines penalties for various infringements, with fines reaching up to Rs 200 crore for failing to meet obligations related to the processing of children's data, and up to Rs 250 crore for neglecting to implement adequate security measures to prevent data breaches. These penalties will be levied by the Board following a formal inquiry process.

The Digital Personal Data Protection (DPDP) Act stands out as a groundbreaking piece of legislation, underpinning the critical importance of data protection and the fundamental right to privacy in our contemporary existence. Here are some noteworthy and innovative characteristics of the DPDP Act that underscore its significance in today's digital age:

DPDP Act, 2023 Facts

The DPDP Act embraces the SARAL approach, prioritizing simple and plain language, incorporating illustrations for clearer understanding, avoiding provisos, and minimizing cross-references among provisions. This makes the act more accessible and easier to comprehend for a wider audience.

The Act signifies a paradigm shift towards empowering individuals with the ability and authority to manage, oversee, and safeguard their personal data. This empowerment is a critical step towards enhancing personal data sovereignty.

By holding Data Fiduciaries accountable, the DPDP Act boosts confidence in the security measures undertaken by these entities. It mandates diligent processing of data, ensuring that authorities are accountable for their actions.

The Act places a strong emphasis on consent, recognizing it as a fundamental basis for the lawful processing of personal data. This approach empowers Data Principals, placing significant trust in their judgment regarding the use of their personal information.

It grants Data Principals the right to rectify inaccuracies in their data or to completely withdraw their consent at any time, without adverse consequences. This feature reinforces the control individuals have over their personal information.

In a progressive move, the DPDP Act adopts the use of 'she' instead of 'he', promoting gender inclusivity and reflecting a commitment to equality within the legal framework.

The Act is pioneering in making Data Fiduciaries directly accountable for situations where a Data Principal withdraws their consent. Previous versions of the bill did not address this aspect, marking a significant advancement in protecting individual rights.

Together, these features make the DPDP Act a landmark legislation, reflecting a modern and thoughtful approach to data protection, emphasizing the empowerment of individuals, and setting a new standard for privacy rights in the digital era.

Role of Justice Sri Krishna committee in data protection laws

The Justice B.N. Sri Krishna Committee played a pivotal role in shaping data protection laws in India. Formed in July 2017 by the Government of India, the committee's primary objective was to study various issues related to data protection, recommend methods to address them, and draft a data protection bill. This initiative was partly in response to the Supreme Court's landmark judgment in August 2017, which affirmed the right to privacy as a fundamental right under the Indian Constitution.

Drafting the Personal Data Protection Bill: The most significant contribution of the Justice Sri Krishna Committee was drafting the Personal Data Protection Bill, which was submitted along with its report in July 2018. This bill aimed to establish a comprehensive legal framework for data protection in India, addressing issues like consent, data localization, individual rights, and the establishment of a Data Protection Authority.

Comprehensive Framework for Data Protection: The committee's report, titled "A Free and Fair Digital Economy: Protecting Privacy, Empowering Indians," provided a detailed analysis of data protection issues and offered a framework that balanced the need for data protection with the requirements of a digital economy. It emphasized the importance of data protection in safeguarding individual privacy and proposed principles for the same.

Data Localization: One of the notable recommendations was the requirement for storing a copy of personal data on servers located within India. This was aimed at ensuring that Indian citizens' data is governed by Indian laws and can be accessed by the government for legal and regulatory purposes.

Data Protection Authority: The committee recommended the establishment of a Data Protection Authority of India, which would be an independent regulatory body responsible for the enforcement and effective implementation of the data protection laws, ensuring compliance, and addressing grievances.

Rights of Individuals: The draft bill outlined several rights of the data principal (the individual to whom the data pertains), including the right to access, correction, data portability, and the right to be forgotten under certain conditions.

Penalties and Compensation: It proposed penalties for violations of the data protection framework and compensation for harm caused to individuals due to data breaches or unlawful processing.

The work of the Justice Sri Krishna Committee laid the foundation for the future of data protection in India. Although the Personal Data Protection Bill has undergone revisions and faced criticism regarding certain provisions, the committee's report remains a cornerstone in the ongoing dialogue and legislative process surrounding data protection in India. Its recommendations have influenced subsequent drafts and discussions on how India approaches the complex issues of privacy and data protection in an increasingly digital world.

What is personal data?

Personal data refers to any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person (also known as a "data subject"). An identifiable natural person is someone who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identifier such as a name, an identification number, location data, an online identifier, or to one or more factors specific to the physical, physiological, genetic, mental, economic, cultural, or social identity of that natural person.

Personal data encompasses a wide range of information. Examples include:

Contact Information: Such as names, addresses, telephone numbers, and email addresses.

Identification Numbers: Like social security numbers, passport numbers, or driver's license numbers.

Location Data: Information obtained via GPS tracking, which can pinpoint an individual's location.

Online Identifiers: This includes IP addresses, cookie identifiers, or other identifiers that track online activities and preferences.

Financial Information: Including bank account details, credit card numbers, and transaction history.

Health Information: Medical records, treatment histories, or other data concerning an individual's physical or mental health.

Biometric Data: Fingerprints, facial recognition data, and DNA profiles used for the purpose of uniquely identifying a natural person.

Personal Characteristics: Such as race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, and religion.

Employment Details: Work history, evaluations, or income information.

The definition of personal data is broad and context-dependent, recognizing that information that may not seem personal in one context might become personal in another, especially when combined with other data. This broad scope is designed to ensure comprehensive protection of individuals' privacy rights in an increasingly digital and data-driven world.

Data protection laws, like the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the Digital Personal Data Protection Act (DPDP) proposed in India, and many others around the globe, establish rules for the processing of personal data to protect individuals' privacy and personal rights. These laws typically provide individuals with rights regarding their personal data, including the right to access, correct, delete, and control the use of their data, and place obligations on entities that handle personal data to protect it from misuse and unauthorized access.

Sensitive personal data

Sensitive personal data refers to a subset of personal data that is considered more sensitive and thus requires higher levels of protection due to the potential harm that could result from its misuse or unauthorized access. The exact definition of sensitive personal data can vary between jurisdictions and under different data protection laws, but it generally includes categories of data that relate to an individual's:

Racial or Ethnic Origin: Information about an individual's racial background or ethnicity.

Political Opinions: Affiliations with political parties or beliefs.

Religious or Philosophical Beliefs: Information about an individual's religious, spiritual beliefs, or philosophical convictions.

Trade Union Membership: Whether an individual is a member of a trade union.

Genetic Data: Data derived from an individual's genetic characteristics that can uniquely identify a person.

Biometric Data: When processed to uniquely identify an individual, such as fingerprints, facial recognition, or iris scans.

Health Information: Any information about an individual's physical or mental health, including the provision of healthcare services, which reveals information about his or her health status.

Sex Life or Sexual Orientation: Information regarding an individual's sex life or sexual orientation.

Due to the sensitive nature of this information, processing such data is subject to stricter regulations under data protection laws like the GDPR in the European Union, the Digital Personal Data Protection Act (DPDP) proposed in India, and other similar laws worldwide. Organizations that handle sensitive personal data are usually required to obtain explicit consent from individuals before processing their data, unless there are specific exemptions provided by law (e.g., for medical purposes, compliance with employment laws, or protection of vital interests). Additionally, entities must implement enhanced security measures to protect sensitive personal data against unauthorized access, disclosure, or alteration.

Key principles of data protection

Data protection laws across the globe are founded on a set of key principles designed to ensure the safe, lawful, and fair handling of personal data. While these principles can vary slightly depending on the specific legislation (such as the EU's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the UK's Data Protection Act, or the proposed Digital Personal Data Protection Act (DPDP) in India), they generally include the following core concepts:

Lawfulness, Fairness, and Transparency: Data must be processed lawfully, fairly, and in a transparent manner in relation to the data subject. This means organizations must have a valid basis for processing personal data and must inform data subjects about how their data is being used.

Purpose Limitation: Personal data should be collected for specified, explicit, and legitimate purposes and not further processed in a manner that is incompatible with those purposes. Essentially, data should only be used for the reasons it was originally collected.

Data Minimization: The collection of personal data must be adequate, relevant, and limited to what is necessary in relation to the purposes for which they are processed. This principle aims to prevent excessive data collection.

Accuracy: Personal data should be accurate and, where necessary, kept up to date. Reasonable steps must be taken to ensure that inaccurate data, with respect to the purposes for which they are processed, are erased or rectified without delay.

Storage Limitation: Personal data should be kept in a form which permits identification of data subjects for no longer than is necessary for the purposes for which the personal data are processed. Data may be stored for longer periods if the personal data will be processed solely for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes, or statistical purposes, subject to implementation of the appropriate safeguards.

Integrity and Confidentiality (Security): Personal data must be processed in a manner that ensures appropriate security of the data, including protection against unauthorized or unlawful processing and against accidental loss, destruction, or damage, using appropriate technical or organizational measures.

Accountability: The data controller is responsible for, and must be able to demonstrate, compliance with the other data protection principles. This means implementing effective policies and measures that meet the principles of data protection by design and data protection by default.

These principles form the backbone of data protection compliance and guide organizations in fostering trust and accountability in their data practices, ensuring the rights and freedoms of individuals are protected in the digital age.

Rights of Data protection and Data privacy

The rights of data principals, or individuals to whom personal data pertains, are central to modern data protection laws. These rights empower individuals to have control over their personal data and ensure transparency and accountability from entities processing their data. While specific rights can vary depending on the jurisdiction and the specific data protection framework in question (such as the GDPR in the European Union, the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) in the United States, or the proposed Digital Personal Data Protection Act (DPDP) in India), common rights afforded to data principals typically include:

Right to Information: The right to be informed about the collection and use of their personal data.

Right to Access: The right to access their personal data and obtain copies of it. This helps individuals understand how and why their data is being used, and check it is being processed lawfully.

Right to Rectification: The right to have inaccurate personal data rectified, or completed if it is incomplete. This right has been included in the DPDP Act under Section 12.

Right to Erasure (Right to be Forgotten): The right to have personal data erased in certain circumstances, such as when the data is no longer necessary for the purpose it was collected, or the individual withdraws consent.

Right to Restrict Processing: The right to request the restriction or suppression of their personal data, meaning that the data can only be stored by the data controller and used for limited purposes.

Right to Data Portability: The right to receive the personal data they have provided to a controller in a structured, commonly used, and machine-readable format. It also includes the right to request that a controller transmit this data directly to another controller.

Right to Object: The right to object to the processing of their personal data in certain circumstances, including processing for direct marketing, research, or statistical purposes.

Right to Not be Subject to Automated Decision-making: The right not to be subject to a decision based solely on automated processing, including profiling, which produces legal effects concerning them or similarly significantly affects them.

Right to Consent Withdrawal: Where processing is based on consent, the right to withdraw consent at any time, without affecting the lawfulness of processing based on consent before its withdrawal. These rights can be seen in Section 12 of the DPDP Act.

Right to Complain: The right to lodge a complaint with a supervisory authority if they feel that their data is not being processed in accordance with the law. The individuals have a right to lodge complaints with the data protection authorities. In the DPDP Act, Section 13 grants the right of grievance redressal to individuals, where they can register their grievances with the Data Fiduciary. 

These rights are designed to give individuals more power and control over their personal data in a world where data plays a crucial role in both economic activities and personal life. Entities processing personal data must ensure that they have mechanisms in place to honor these rights effectively and efficiently.

Obligations and responsibilities of data fiduciary

A crucial component within the framework, the Data Fiduciary bears significant responsibilities outlined in Chapter 2 of the DPDP Act. Here's a summary of their obligations:

  • A Data Fiduciary is authorized to engage a Data Processor to handle personal data on its behalf, particularly for providing goods and services to Data Principals.
  • It is incumbent upon the Data Fiduciary to ensure the completeness, accuracy, and consistency of data, especially when it influences decisions impacting the Data Principal or when shared with another Data Fiduciary.
  • Regardless of any agreements to the contrary, the Data Fiduciary must fulfill its duties and responsibilities as outlined in the Act.
  • The Data Fiduciary is required to adopt suitable technical and organizational measures to ensure compliance with the provisions of the DPDP Act and its associated rules.
  • Safeguarding personal data within its possession or under its control, including processing carried out by a Data Processor on its behalf, is essential. This entails implementing reasonable measures to prevent personal data breaches.
  • In the event of a data breach, the Data Fiduciary is obligated to notify the Board and the Data Principal in accordance with the prescribed manner and form outlined in the DPDP Act.
  • Upon the withdrawal of consent by the Data Principal or when it is no longer serving its specified purpose, the Data Fiduciary must erase personal data. However, retention may be necessary under legal requirements.
  • The Data Fiduciary is mandated to publish the business contact information of the data protection officer or any authorized representative who can address queries from Data Principals regarding personal data processing.
  • Establishing a mechanism to address grievances of Data Principals is another crucial responsibility of the Data Fiduciary.

Processing personal data of children

When it comes to the personal data of children, or those with disabilities, the DPDP Act extends its protective measures to include the consent of their parents or legal guardians. Recognizing that minors and individuals with special needs may not be in a position to fully understand or consent to the processing of their personal data, the Act mandates, under Section 9, that Data Fiduciaries must secure verifiable consent from a parent or guardian before proceeding with data processing.

Moreover, the Act sets clear boundaries to safeguard the interests and well-being of children. It explicitly prohibits Data Fiduciaries from engaging in any form of personal data processing that could potentially harm a child's welfare. This includes stringent restrictions against tracking, behavioral monitoring, and the delivery of targeted advertising directed at children, ensuring a safer digital environment for the most vulnerable members of society.

Data Protection Board of India

Chapter 5 of the Digital Personal Data Protection (DPDP) Act outlines the establishment and function of the Data Protection Board of India (DPBI). As per Section 18, the Central Government is tasked with setting up the DPBI, which is constituted as a body corporate. This entity is granted perpetual succession and is endowed with a common seal, empowering it to enter into contracts, as well as to initiate or be subject to legal proceedings. This structure ensures that the DPBI operates as an autonomous and authoritative body overseeing data protection compliance, with the legal capacity to enforce the provisions of the DPDP Act effectively.

Composition and term of Board

The composition and tenure of the Data Protection Board of India (DPBI) are structured to include a Chairperson and additional members, as designated by the Central Government. These positions demand individuals not only of high ethical standards and professional integrity but also of notable competence. Eligibility criteria for the Chairperson and members mandate a substantial background and hands-on experience in various relevant domains. 

These areas encompass data governance, administrative processes, law enforcement pertaining to social or consumer rights, dispute resolution mechanisms, and technological fields including information and communication technology, the digital economy, legal frameworks, and techno-regulation. The inclusion of at least one member with expertise in legal matters ensures that the Board’s decisions and actions are grounded in a comprehensive understanding of legal principles. 

Members are appointed for a term of two years, with the provision for re-appointment, allowing for continuity and the retention of experienced personnel within the DPBI. This structure aims to create a balanced and informed body capable of addressing the complex challenges of data protection and privacy in the digital age.

Powers of the Chairperson

Under Section 26 of the DPDP Act, the Chairperson of the Data Protection Board of India (DPBI) is endowed with significant administrative and operational powers to ensure the effective functioning of the Board. These powers include:

General Superintendence and Direction: The Chairperson holds the authority to oversee all administrative aspects of the Board's operations. This encompasses guiding the Board's strategic direction, making decisions on administrative policies, and ensuring that the Board's activities align with its objectives and legal mandates.

Authorization of Officers for Scrutiny: The Chairperson can delegate authority to any officer of the Board to examine intimations, complaints, references, or any correspondence directed to the Board. This delegation is crucial for streamlining the process of handling communications and ensuring that issues are addressed promptly and efficiently.

Delegation of Board Functions: The Chairperson has the discretion to assign the performance of any of the Board's functions to an individual member or a group of members. This includes the authority to conduct proceedings and to distribute these proceedings among the members as deemed appropriate. This flexibility in delegation allows the Chairperson to manage the Board's workload effectively, ensuring that matters are addressed by the most suitable members based on their expertise and capacity.

Powers and functions of the Board

These powers granted to the Chairperson are instrumental in maintaining the DPBI's efficiency, responsiveness, and adaptability in fulfilling its mandate to protect personal data and uphold privacy rights.

Section 27 of the Digital Personal Data Protection (DPDP) Act delineates the extensive powers and functions of the Data Protection Board of India (DPBI), aimed at ensuring the protection of personal data and addressing breaches effectively. Here's a breakdown of these powers and functions:

Response to Personal Data Breaches: Upon receiving notification of a personal data breach as per Section 8(6), the DPBI is empowered to command immediate remedial actions or mitigation measures. It is also tasked with conducting inquiries into the breach and, based on its findings, levying penalties as stipulated in the Act.

Handling Complaints from Data Principals: If a Data Principal lodges a complaint regarding a personal data breach or alleges non-compliance by a Data Fiduciary with its obligations under the Act, the Board is responsible for investigating the complaint. This includes complaints forwarded by the Central or State Governments or those arising from court orders. Following its inquiry, the Board can impose penalties as appropriate.

Issues with Consent Managers: When a complaint is made against a consent manager for failing to meet their obligations, the DPBI has the authority to look into these allegations and assign penalties in accordance with the Act’s provisions.

Breach by Consent Managers: The Board is also responsible for investigating and penalizing any breach of conditions by Consent Managers, ensuring they adhere strictly to the Act's requirements.

Government Referrals: In instances where the Central Government refers a breach concerning Section 37(2), the DPBI is charged with conducting an inquiry and imposing penalties as necessary.

For the effective execution of its duties, the DPBI is required to follow principles of natural justice by offering individuals involved an opportunity to be heard. It must document its reasons in writing for any actions taken. The Board has the authority to issue directives as it deems necessary, which can be adjusted, suspended, withdrawn, or canceled based on representations made by the person concerned. Additionally, it may set conditions for such directives, ensuring a structured and fair approach to data protection governance.


Section 17 of the Digital Personal Data Protection (DPDP) Act outlines specific exemptions where the obligations typically imposed on data fiduciaries, as detailed in Chapter II, do not apply under certain conditions. This section is critical for understanding the scope and limitations of the Act’s applicability. Here's a simplified overview of these exemptions:

Legal Rights and Claims: If the processing of personal data is essential for enforcing any legal right or claim, the obligations of data fiduciaries under Chapter II are not applicable.

Court or Tribunal Orders: Processing required to comply with orders from courts or tribunals, or by entities performing judicial, quasi-judicial, regulatory, or supervisory functions, is exempted from these obligations.

Offence Prevention and Investigation: Data processing necessary for the prevention, detection, investigation, or prosecution of offences or legal contraventions in India falls outside the purview of Chapter II obligations.

International Contracts: The processing of personal data concerning data principals not located in India, under contracts with individuals outside India by entities based in India, is exempted.

Corporate Transactions: Processing necessary for corporate restructuring activities, such as mergers, demergers, acquisitions, or divisions approved by competent authorities, is exempt.

Financial Information for Defaulters: When processing is necessary to determine the financial status and liabilities of individuals who have defaulted on loans from financial institutions, subject to certain conditions on information disclosure.

Additionally, Section 17(2) specifies broader exemptions:

State Instrumentality: Processing by state instrumentalities, as notified by the Central Government, in interests like national sovereignty, international relations, public order, or preventing incitement to cognizable offences.

Research and Statistical Purposes: Processing for research, archiving, or statistical purposes, provided the data is not used to make specific decisions affecting the data principal.

These exemptions are designed to balance the privacy rights of individuals with the practical necessities of legal, corporate, and state functions. They ensure that the DPDP Act does not unduly hinder activities that are essential for legal enforcement, public safety, national security, and economic transactions, while still aiming to protect personal data privacy to the maximum extent possible.

Penalties and fines for violating data protection laws

Chapter 8 of the Digital Personal Data Protection (DPDP) Act outlines the framework for imposing penalties and conducting adjudication for breaches of the Act. A critical section within this chapter is Section 33, which details how the Data Protection Board of India is empowered to levy monetary penalties on entities found in violation of the Act's provisions. This process is not arbitrary but is guided by a set of considerations aimed at ensuring fairness, proportionality, and effectiveness. Here's a breakdown of the factors that the Board must consider when determining the amount of a monetary penalty:

Nature, Gravity, and Duration of the Breach: The Board assesses how serious the breach is, how long it persisted, and the extent of its impact. This helps in understanding the scale of the violation and its potential or actual harm to data principals.

Type and Nature of Personal Data Affected: The sensitivity of the personal data involved in the breach is a crucial consideration. Breaches involving highly sensitive data (e.g., health records, financial information) may warrant stricter penalties.

Repetitive Nature of the Breach: If the entity has previously violated similar provisions, indicating a pattern of non-compliance, this could lead to higher penalties. It reflects on the entity's disregard for the law and the need for a stronger deterrent.

Gains or Losses Avoided Due to the Breach: The Board considers whether the entity gained any financial advantage or avoided losses through the breach. This aspect helps in ensuring that the penalty nullifies any undue advantage gained from the violation.

Mitigation Actions Taken: If the entity took steps to mitigate the impact of the breach, including how timely and effective these actions were, it could influence the penalty's severity. Proactive measures to limit harm can reflect positively on the entity's responsibility.

Proportionality and Deterrent Effect of the Penalty: The penalty must be balanced—it should be severe enough to serve as a deterrent to prevent future breaches, yet not so harsh as to be unjust. It should encourage compliance without being punitive for its own sake.

Impact of the Penalty on the Entity: Finally, the Board considers the financial impact of the penalty on the entity, ensuring that it does not disproportionately harm the entity's ability to operate, especially if it's a smaller business or operates in the public interest.

By considering these factors, the DPDP Act aims to create a balanced approach to penalties, ensuring that they are fair, proportional to the breach, and effective in promoting compliance while deterring future violations. This approach underscores the Act's commitment to protecting personal data and the rights of data principals, while also providing a fair and reasoned framework for entities that process personal data. Here's a summary of the penalties for various breaches under the DPDP Act:

Failure to Implement Adequate Security Measures (Section 8(5)): Data fiduciaries that fail to take reasonable steps to secure personal data against breaches face penalties up to Rs. 250 crores. This underscores the critical importance of maintaining robust data security protocols.

Failure to Notify of Data Breaches (Section 8(6)): Entities that do not inform the Data Protection Board and affected data principals about a personal data breach may be penalized up to Rs. 200 crores. Timely notification is crucial for mitigating harm and maintaining transparency.

Non-compliance with Child Data Processing Obligations (Section 9): Fiduciaries not fulfilling their additional obligations concerning children's data can incur penalties up to Rs. 200 crores. This reflects the Act's emphasis on safeguarding children's personal data.

Non-compliance by Significant Data Fiduciaries (Section 10): Significant data fiduciaries failing to meet their enhanced obligations may face penalties up to Rs. 150 crores. Given their large-scale data processing, their compliance is vital for data protection.

Violation of User Duties (Section 15): Individuals violating their duties under the Act could be fined up to Rs. 10,000. This provision ensures that data principals also adhere to lawful and responsible data handling practices.

Breach of Voluntary Undertakings (Section 32): Entities breaching terms of voluntary undertakings accepted by the Board could face penalties applicable to breaches as if proceedings were instituted under Section 28. This ensures accountability for commitments made to the Board.

General Non-compliance (Applicable to Various Sections): For breaches not specifically covered elsewhere in the Act, penalties can extend up to Rs. 50 crores. This catch-all provision ensures that any form of non-compliance is subject to a significant deterrent.

These penalties are designed to enforce compliance with the DPDP Act, ensuring entities prioritize the protection of personal data. The substantial financial implications highlight the Act's commitment to safeguarding personal data privacy and security, emphasizing both preventive measures and accountability.

Comparison of DPDPA with GDPR

The comparison between the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and the Digital Personal Data Protection Act (DPDPA) highlights key similarities and differences in data protection frameworks across jurisdictions. Both aim to protect individuals' personal data, enhance privacy rights, and establish obligations for data controllers and processors. However, their approaches and specific provisions reflect the unique legal, cultural, and social contexts of the European Union and India, respectively. Here's a brief overview:

Personal Data

GDPR: Broad definition, encompassing any information related to an identifiable person.

DPDPA: Similar broad definition, focusing on identifiable individuals through data.


GDPR: Extraterritorial scope, applying to entities outside the EU if they process data of EU residents.

DPDPA: Applies to digital data, with a specific focus on processing within India, and lacks the GDPR's extensive extraterritorial reach.

Data Collection and Processing

GDPR and DPDPA: Both require lawful, fair, and transparent processing, with consent being a primary basis. However, GDPR provides more detailed conditions under which processing is lawful.

Data Minimization

GDPR: Explicitly mandates data minimization.

DPDPA: Lacks a specific provision on data minimization.


Both: Emphasize informed, freely given, and specific consent, with provisions for withdrawal.

Rights of Individuals

GDPR: Provides a comprehensive set of rights, including data access, rectification, erasure, portability, and objection to processing.

DPDPA: Offers similar rights, focusing on information access, correction, erasure, and grievance redressal, but with fewer details compared to GDPR.


GDPR: Requires data protection impact assessments for high-risk processing.

DPDPA: Specifies that significant data fiduciaries need to conduct assessments based on the volume and sensitivity of data processed.

Role of Data Controller/Fiduciary

Both: Assign responsibilities to ensure compliance with the law, including implementing adequate data protection measures and notifying authorities of data breaches.


GDPR: Penalties up to 4% of annual global turnover or €20 million, whichever is greater.

DPDPA: Penalties up to 5% of annual turnover or Rs. 500 crores, whichever is higher, with a detailed consideration of the nature and gravity of the breach.

The GDPR serves as a model for many data protection laws worldwide, including the DPDPA. However, the DPDPA tailors its provisions to fit India's specific needs and context while aligning with global data protection standards.

Career opportunities in data protection and data privacy

The increasing importance of data protection and privacy, driven by the proliferation of data breaches and the implementation of stringent regulations like the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in Europe, the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), and India's proposed Personal Data Protection Bill, has created a significant demand for professionals in this field. This demand spans various industries, including technology, finance, healthcare, and government, offering a wide range of career opportunities for individuals interested in data protection and privacy. Here are some key career paths in this area:

Data Protection Officer (DPO): Many regulations require certain organizations to appoint a DPO. This person is responsible for overseeing data protection strategies, ensuring compliance with data protection laws, and being a point of contact for data subjects and regulatory bodies.

Privacy Counsel/Lawyer: Legal professionals specializing in data protection and privacy laws provide advice on compliance issues, help draft privacy policies and procedures, and represent companies in legal proceedings related to data breaches or non-compliance.

Compliance Officer: Focuses on ensuring that an organization's practices are in line with the various data protection and privacy regulations that apply to their operations. They may conduct audits, risk assessments, and training sessions to maintain compliance levels.

Privacy Analyst/Consultant: Works with organizations to assess their privacy policies and practices, identify potential vulnerabilities, and recommend improvements. They may also assist in implementing privacy-by-design strategies.

Information Security Professional: While not exclusively focused on privacy, information security roles are critical to protecting data from unauthorized access and breaches. Professionals in this area may specialize in areas like cybersecurity, encryption, and network security, all of which play a crucial role in maintaining data privacy.

Privacy Technologist: Specializes in implementing technical solutions and tools to support privacy and data protection. This could involve developing or deploying privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs), secure data storage solutions, or data anonymization techniques.

Data Governance Manager: Oversees the overall management of data availability, usability, integrity, and security in a company. This role involves setting data policies and standards that support privacy and compliance.

Risk Assessment Manager: Identifies, evaluates, and prioritizes risks related to data privacy and security, developing strategies to mitigate these risks. This role is critical in proactively addressing potential privacy issues.

Privacy Product Manager: Works on the development of products or services, ensuring that they are designed and function in a privacy-compliant manner. This role requires a deep understanding of both privacy regulations and the technical aspects of product development.

Data Ethics Officer: Focuses on the ethical considerations surrounding data use, ensuring that an organization's data practices respect individual rights and societal norms. This role is becoming more relevant as data use cases become more complex and potentially intrusive.

These roles require a combination of legal, technical, and managerial skills and offer opportunities to work at the forefront of digital innovation and regulation. Education and training in law, information technology, cybersecurity, and business administration can provide a solid foundation for a career in data protection and privacy. As the field continues to evolve, ongoing learning and specialization will be key to success.

International Data Protection Laws

International data protection laws are designed to govern the collection, use, and management of personal information by organizations across the globe. These laws vary by country but share the common goal of protecting individuals' privacy rights while enabling data flow between territories under certain conditions. Below are some notable international data protection laws and frameworks:

1. General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) - European Union

The GDPR, which came into effect on May 25, 2018, is one of the most comprehensive data protection laws globally. It applies to all companies processing and holding the personal data of data subjects residing in the European Union, regardless of the company's location. The GDPR emphasizes transparency, security, and accountability by data processors, while also granting significant rights to the data subjects, such as the right to access their data, the right to be forgotten, and the right to data portability.

2. California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) - United States

The CCPA, effective from January 1, 2020, grants California residents new rights regarding their personal information's collection, use, and sharing. It applies to for-profit businesses operating in California that meet certain criteria. The CCPA provides Californians the right to know about the personal information a business collects about them, the right to delete personal information held by businesses, the right to opt-out of the sale of personal information, and the right against discrimination for exercising their CCPA rights.

3. Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA) - Canada

PIPEDA sets the ground rules for how businesses must handle personal information in the course of commercial activity across Canada. It requires businesses to obtain an individual's consent when they collect, use, or disclose their personal information. PIPEDA gives individuals the right to access personal information held by an organization and challenge its accuracy.

4. Data Protection Act 2018 - United Kingdom

The Data Protection Act 2018 is the UK's implementation of the GDPR. It controls how personal information is used by organizations, businesses, or the government. The UK's act has provisions that apply specifically to data processing that falls outside the GDPR's scope, providing a comprehensive data protection framework for UK residents.

5. Lei Geral de Proteção de Dados (LGPD) - Brazil

Brazil's LGPD, which took effect in September 2020, is inspired by the GDPR and represents a significant shift in how personal data is regulated in Brazil. The law applies to any business or organization that processes the personal data of individuals in Brazil, regardless of where the business is located. The LGPD grants individuals similar rights to those under GDPR, such as access to their data, correction, deletion, and the right to data portability.

6. Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA) - Singapore

Singapore's PDPA establishes a data protection law that governs the collection, use, and disclosure of personal data by the private sector. It aims to protect individuals' personal data against misuse and promote proper management of personal data in organizations. The PDPA also establishes the Do Not Call (DNC) registry, allowing individuals to opt-out of receiving marketing communications.

7. Information Technology (Reasonable Security Practices and Procedures and Sensitive Personal Data or Information) Rules, 2011 - India

While India is working on a comprehensive data protection law, the Information Technology Act and its rules provide the current legal framework for data protection. These rules apply to corporate bodies in India that possess, deal with, or handle any sensitive personal data or information in a computer resource they own, control, or operate. They require obtaining consent before collection, detailing purposes of usage, and implementing reasonable security practices and procedures.

These laws and others like them reflect a global trend toward stronger privacy protections, requiring organizations to adopt a proactive approach to data protection and privacy compliance across jurisdictions.


The evolution and implementation of data protection and data privacy laws in India mark a significant step towards safeguarding personal data in the digital age. The introduction of the Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act), and its subsequent amendments, alongside the proposed Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023, demonstrate India's commitment to aligning its data protection frameworks with global standards, such as the GDPR. These legislative measures reflect an understanding of the critical need to protect individuals' privacy rights while fostering innovation and growth in the digital economy.

The landmark judgment of the Supreme Court in Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) vs Union Of India, recognizing privacy as a fundamental right, has been a pivotal moment in shaping the discourse on data protection in India. It has set the groundwork for more stringent data protection regulations, emphasizing the need for a balance between individual rights and the state's interests.

However, the journey towards a comprehensive and effective data protection regime in India is ongoing. The proposed Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023, aims to address gaps in existing laws and bring India's data protection policies in line with international standards. It is crucial for this law to ensure a robust framework for the protection of personal data that includes clear definitions, stringent compliance requirements for data processors, and strong rights for data principals.

The focus should also extend to implementing these laws effectively, with adequate resources for regulatory authorities to enforce compliance and penalize violations. Furthermore, public awareness and education on data protection rights are vital to empower individuals to understand and exercise their rights.

In conclusion, while India has made significant strides in establishing a legal framework for data protection and privacy, continuous efforts are needed to update and refine these laws in response to evolving technology and privacy challenges. The ultimate goal should be to create a secure digital environment that protects individual privacy rights without hampering technological advancement and economic growth.




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item Data Protection and Data Privacy Laws in India - Explained
Data Protection and Data Privacy Laws in India - Explained
Data protection and data privacy laws in India are primarily governed by the Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act), along with its rules and amend
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