Gaganyaan Mission: History, Astronauts, Spacecraft - Explained

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Gaganyaan Mission

On February 28, 2024, Prime Minister Narendra Modi introduced three key space infrastructure initiatives, which are valued at Rs. 1800 crores and were developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) at different centers in Kerala.

Additionally, he officially recognized the first four Indian astronaut candidates who are part of the Gaganyaan mission. During this event, he also reviewed the progress of India's first human spaceflight program, which is planned to launch by 2027.

The Prime Minister inaugurated several new facilities at ISRO that significantly enhance India's space exploration capabilities. These include:

  • A PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) rocket integration facility, which will improve the country's ability to prepare and launch rockets.
  • A semi-cryogenic engine testing complex, aimed at boosting India's capabilities in developing and testing its own rocket engines.
  • A trisonic wind tunnel, which is critical for testing and refining advanced rocket designs by simulating various atmospheric conditions.

These facilities, which were developed with a combined investment of about ₹1,800 crore, are set to significantly increase India's technological independence by enhancing its indigenous space exploration and satellite launch capabilities.

During his visit, Prime Minister Narendra Modi officially revealed the names of the first Indian astronauts selected for the Gaganyaan mission, marking a significant step forward in India's space exploration journey. 

Gaganyaan Mission: History, Astronauts, Spacecraft - Explained

What is Gaganyaan mission?

The Gaganyaan mission is India's big step into manned space flights, planning to send three people into space by 2024 or 2025. They will travel 400 km above Earth, stay in space for three days, and then return, landing in the sea near India.

To make this mission successful, ISRO (India's space agency) is using its own experts, the skills of Indian businesses, the knowledge from universities and research places, and the latest space technology from around the world.

Recently, ISRO achieved something very important for the mission. They made sure their CE20 cryogenic engine is safe and ready for carrying humans into space. This engine is a key part of the rocket that will take the astronauts on their journey. To check it's ready, they did a final series of tests, including one on February 13, 2024, that imitated the conditions the engine will face when it's actually flying in space. This step was a big win for India's plans to launch its first manned space mission.

Gaganyaan Mission: PM names 4 astronauts

The chosen astronauts are four Indian Air Force test pilots: Prashanth Balakrishnan Nair, Angad Prathap, Ajit Krishnan, and Shubhanshu Shukla. They were selected after rigorous testing and evaluations by the Indian Air Force (IAF) and ISRO, which mirrored the stringent processes used by NASA to assess candidates' physical fitness, behavior, and other critical qualities.

Training of Gaganyaan Mission astronauts

The four astronauts chosen for India's Gaganyaan mission went to Russia for their initial training at the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Centre from February 2020 to March 2021. This training happened because ISRO (the Indian Space Research Organisation) and Glavkosmos, which is part of the Russian space agency Roscosmos, agreed to work together in June 2019.

After returning from Russia, these astronauts are now training at ISRO's own facility in Bengaluru, India. An ISRO official mentioned that training for astronauts is an ongoing process. Currently, they are learning about the different parts of the spacecraft they will be using. They practice on simulators that mimic these parts, helping them understand how everything works. Their feedback is also important for improving the spacecraft's design to make sure it's comfortable and functional.

Besides the technical training, astronauts must keep up with their physical fitness and mental health training.

Additionally, one of the four astronauts might get the chance to train with NASA, the American space agency. This possibility was mentioned by Bill Nelson, the head of NASA, during a visit to Delhi in 2023. It's suggested that this astronaut would be chosen from the group preparing for the Gaganyaan mission.

History of Gaganyaan Mission

The journey to develop India's Gaganyaan mission, aimed at sending humans to space, started in 2006 with the initial idea of creating a simple space capsule that could support two astronauts for about a week. The project, named "Orbital Vehicle," was officially set in motion in 2007 with a budget of around ₹10,000 crore and aimed to be completed by 2024. By 2008, the design was ready and awaited government funding, which was approved in 2009. However, due to limited funds, the project faced delays, and its priority within ISRO shifted over the years.

Despite these challenges, a significant budget increase in 2014 revitalized the project. The program gained substantial momentum in 2017 and was officially announced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2018. The mission now plans to send a crew of three astronauts and conduct various experiments in space, focusing on biological and physical sciences related to microgravity. ISRO also aims to use environmentally friendly propellant for the mission.

By 2021, ISRO had selected five science experiments for the mission, focusing on areas such as kidney stone formation, heat management, crystallization, and fluid mixing. These experiments are collaborations with various Indian research institutions.

On February 27, 2024, Prime Minister Modi introduced the first group of Indian astronauts, including Prashanth Balakrishnan Nair, Angad Prathap, Ajit Krishnan, and Shubanshu Shukla, marking a significant step forward for India's ambitions in human spaceflight and the possibility of participating in missions to the International Space Station (ISS). These astronauts, experienced test pilots from the Indian Air Force, symbolize India's growing capabilities and aspirations in space exploration.

Gaganyaan Mission: PM MODI in Kerala Live Coverage

Prime Minister Modi met with India's future astronauts and introduced them to the nation, expressing his pride and congratulating them on behalf of all Indians. He mentioned that India's achievements in space are inspiring young people across the country to take an interest in science.

During a visit to Kerala, PM Modi went to the Vikram Sarabhai Space Center in Thiruvananthapuram to check on the Gaganyaan Mission's progress. He was joined by Kerala's Chief Minister, Pinarayi Vijayan, Union Minister Muraleedharan, and ISRO's chairman, S Somanath.

In a ceremonial gesture, the Prime Minister presented each astronaut with a customized astronaut pin, symbolizing their elite status and pivotal role in India's maiden manned space mission. This gesture highlights the significance of their upcoming journey and India's ambitions in space exploration.

Furthermore, the Prime Minister received updates from the ISRO Chairman on the extensive preparations for the Gaganyaan mission. These preparations include the development of a human-rated launch vehicle, a crew escape system, an orbital module, spacesuits, life support systems, and the necessary ground infrastructure and facilities for the astronauts.

Looking towards the future, Prime Minister Modi articulated his vision for India to become a leading space power by 2047. This vision includes ambitious goals such as conducting manned moon missions using indigenous rockets, establishing an Indian space station for exploration, significantly increasing satellite launch capabilities, and fostering the growth of space sector startups. This vision sets a bold roadmap for India's space exploration efforts in the coming decades.

Gaganyaan Meaning

Gaganyaan is India's space mission designed to send humans into space. The name comes from two Sanskrit words: "gagana," meaning "sky" or "celestial," and "yāna," meaning "vehicle" or "craft." This mission is a big step for the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and aims to carry three people into space. There are also plans to make a more advanced version of the spacecraft that can meet up and connect with other spacecraft in space.

Gaganyaan First Mission

For its first mission with people on board, the spacecraft, which weighs about 5.3 tons, will fly around the Earth at an altitude of 400 km (about 249 miles) for up to seven days. The plan was to launch this mission on ISRO's LVM3 rocket in December 2021. However, as of October 2023, the launch is expected to happen by 2025.

Gaganyaan Spacecraft

The spacecraft's crew module, made by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), had its first test flight without a crew on December 18, 2014. By May 2019, the design of this module was finished. The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is helping by providing important technology and support, such as space food, healthcare for the crew, protection against space radiation, parachutes for safely bringing the crew back to Earth, and a system to put out fires.

ISRO, India's space agency, will use its most powerful rocket, the LVM3 (previously known as GSLV-MkIII), for the Gaganyaan missions, which are aimed at sending humans to space. This rocket has been launched seven times without any failures and is made up of three main parts: a liquid stage, a solid stage, and a cryogenic stage (which uses very cold fuel).

For the Gaganyaan missions that will carry astronauts, ISRO has made some changes to the LVM3 rocket to make sure it meets the safety standards needed for human spaceflight. This process is known as "human rating." On February 14, ISRO conducted the final tests on the rocket's CE20 cryogenic engine. This engine is crucial for powering the rocket during the last part of its ascent into space. The tests were successful, meaning the CE20 engine is now approved for carrying astronauts.

Additionally, the 'Vikas' engine, which is used in the liquid fuel part of the rocket, and the solid booster, part of the rocket's solid stage, have also been approved for these missions.

There's also a special engine that starts up when the rocket lifts off, used in all Gaganyaan missions. This engine has passed all necessary tests, confirming it works as needed for the missions. These tests help ensure that the rocket's components perform correctly according to the mission's requirements, making them ready for the actual space journey.

The plan to launch an uncrewed (without people) version of Gaganyaan was delayed because of the COVID-19 pandemic, but this was not expected to affect the schedule for the crewed (with people) missions. However, in 2022, it was announced that the first mission with astronauts wouldn't happen until at least 2024 due to safety concerns, with further updates in 2023 aiming for a 2024 launch.

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Barristery.in: Gaganyaan Mission: History, Astronauts, Spacecraft - Explained
Gaganyaan Mission: History, Astronauts, Spacecraft - Explained
The Gaganyaan mission is India's big step into manned space flights, planning to send three people into space by 2024 or 2025. They will travel 400 km
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