The Right to Privacy - Article 21, Cases, Acts, GDPR etc.

SHARE:

Right to Privacy

Welcome to Barristery.in, where we dive deep into the essence of one of the most vital human rights in today's digital era - the Right to Privacy. In a world where our lives are increasingly online, and personal data can easily become public, the significance of privacy has never been more pronounced. 

This Article will guide you through the intricate landscape of privacy rights, exploring its legal battles, societal impacts, and personal ramifications. We'll uncover how landmark judgements have shaped the way we understand privacy today and what it means for your personal freedom in a world of constant surveillance. 

From protecting your digital footprint to understanding your rights against data breaches, join us as we navigate the complex interplay between privacy, technology, and individual liberty.

On December 15, 1890, young law partners from Boston, Samuel D. Warren and Louis D. Brandeis, contributed a seminal article titled "The Right to Privacy" to the Harvard Law Review. This article suggested solutions for addressing intrusions into personal privacy by the press. Fast forward over ninety years, and the legal system has elevated the protection of privacy to a principal concern. A comprehensive body of case law on privacy has been systematically compiled by legal experts into a unified common law of privacy. Additionally, the Supreme Court has recognized the right to privacy as implicitly protected by the Bill of Rights, and Congress has passed further protective measures.

Right to Privacy

What is the Right to Privacy?

The right to privacy is a fundamental human right recognized in many countries around the world. It protects individuals against unwarranted invasions of their personal space, communications, and information by the government, organizations, and other individuals. Privacy enables individuals to make personal choices without interference, live their lives with dignity and autonomy, and express themselves freely.

The scope of the right to privacy can vary from one jurisdiction to another but generally includes aspects such as:

  • The protection against searches of one's body or home without consent.
  • Safeguards against the collection, use, and disclosure of personal data without consent.
  • The right to communicate freely without surveillance or interception.
  • Protection against unauthorized entry into one's private premises.
  • The right to control the collection and sharing of data about oneself.

In the digital age, the right to privacy has become increasingly complex, encompassing issues related to data protection, online identity, and digital surveillance. Countries have developed various laws and regulations to address these challenges, such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in the European Union, which aims to give individuals control over their personal data and simplify the regulatory environment for international business.

The right to privacy is not absolute and can be limited under certain conditions, such as national security, public safety, or the prevention of crime. However, any infringement on privacy rights must be justified as necessary, proportionate, and in accordance with the law.

Famous Persons Quote on Right to Privacy

One of the most cited definitions of the right to privacy comes from Samuel D. Warren and Louis D. Brandeis in their famous 1890 Harvard Law Review article, "The Right to Privacy." They defined privacy as:

Samuel D. Warren and Louis D. Brandeis 

"The right to be let alone; the most comprehensive of rights, and the right most valued by civilized men."

This definition, though over a century old, captures the essence of privacy as a fundamental human right, emphasizing the importance of personal space and autonomy. Warren and Brandeis articulated this concept in response to the increasing reach of newspapers and photographs into private lives, showing how concerns about privacy have evolved alongside technology. Their work laid the groundwork for the legal and philosophical discussions on privacy that continue to this day.

Alan Westin

Alan Westin, a pioneer in privacy studies, defined privacy in his 1967 book "Privacy and Freedom" as: 

"The claim of individuals, groups, or institutions to determine for themselves when, how, and to what extent information about them is communicated to others."

Westin's definition emphasizes the control over personal information, which has become increasingly relevant in the digital age.

Article 12 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)

While not a definition per se, Article 12 of the UDHR, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948, lays down a foundational principle of privacy rights:

"No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks."

This article highlights the universal importance of privacy as a human right, protected against arbitrary interference.

 Justice Louis Brandeis

Before the famous Harvard Law Review article with Samuel Warren, as a Supreme Court Justice, Louis Brandeis famously articulated the concept of privacy in the case of Olmstead v. United States in 1928, concurring opinion:

"The right to be let alone – the most comprehensive of rights and the right most valued by civilized men."

This quote, though echoing the earlier work, was significant in its judicial context and has been influential in shaping American privacy law.

European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

The GDPR, which came into effect in May 2018, doesn't provide a direct definition of privacy but is one of the most comprehensive legal frameworks for protecting personal data. It is grounded in the broader concept of data protection as a fundamental right, as articulated in Article 8 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union:

"Everyone has the right to the protection of personal data concerning him or her."

This emphasizes the right to data protection as an aspect of privacy in the context of personal data.

International recognition of the right to privacy as a fundamental right

The right to privacy is internationally recognized as a fundamental human right, enshrined in various global and regional human rights instruments. This recognition underscores the universal acknowledgment of privacy as essential to the dignity and autonomy of individuals. below are the key documents and conventions that establish the right to privacy on the international stage:

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) - Article 12 of the UDHR, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948, explicitly mentions privacy. It states, "No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks."

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) - Article 17 of the ICCPR, which came into force in 1976, provides a more detailed right to privacy. It prohibits arbitrary or unlawful interference with an individual's privacy, family, home, or correspondence, and unlawful attacks on their honor and reputation, mirroring the protections offered in the UDHR.

European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) - Article 8 of the ECHR, enforced by the European Court of Human Rights, protects the right to respect for private and family life, one's home, and correspondence. The ECHR applies to the member states of the Council of Europe.

American Convention on Human Rights - Article 11 of this convention provides for the protection of personal privacy, the privacy of the family, the home, and correspondence. This convention applies to member states of the Organization of American States (OAS).

African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights - Also known as the Banjul Charter, it implicitly recognizes privacy rights through protections against arbitrary arrest (Article 6) and the right to receive information and express and disseminate opinions (Article 9), which can be interpreted to include aspects of privacy.

General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR): Enacted by the European Union in 2018, the GDPR is one of the most comprehensive data protection regulations globally. It has set a new standard for privacy rights, emphasizing consent, transparency, and control over personal data for individuals within the EU. The GDPR's influence extends beyond Europe, as international businesses must comply with its provisions to offer goods and services to EU residents.

United Nations Guidelines for the Regulation of Computerized Personal Data Files: Adopted in 1990, these guidelines were among the first international efforts to address data protection and privacy in the context of emerging digital technologies. They set out principles for the collection, processing, and storage of personal data.

These instruments reflect a global consensus on the importance of protecting privacy rights. However, the implementation and interpretation of these rights can vary significantly across different legal and cultural contexts. In recent years, the right to privacy has gained renewed attention, especially concerning digital privacy, data protection, and surveillance. Legislative and judicial bodies worldwide have been tasked with balancing these rights against national security interests, technological advancements, and other competing rights.

Right to privacy in different countries

The right to privacy is recognized and protected to varying degrees around the world, reflecting diverse legal traditions, cultural values, and technological landscapes. In today's data-centric world, where personal information is more accessible than ever, the establishment of data protection and privacy laws by various countries is crucial. 

The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) reports that out of 194 countries globally, 137 have implemented legislation concerning privacy and data protection. In regions like Asia and Africa, there is a notable embrace of such legislation, with 57% and 61% of the countries, respectively, having adopted laws to safeguard privacy. These international data protection laws are grounded in five fundamental global privacy principles.

United States

The U.S. Constitution does not explicitly mention the right to privacy, but the Supreme Court has interpreted several amendments to imply this right, particularly through the Fourth Amendment (protection against unreasonable searches and seizures) and the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

The U.S. has a sector-specific approach to privacy law, with various statutes addressing privacy in contexts such as healthcare (HIPAA), financial information (GLBA), and online privacy for children (COPPA).

European Union

General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), The GDPR is a comprehensive data protection law that came into effect in May 2018. It emphasizes consent, data protection by design, and the rights of individuals to control their personal data, including the right to be forgotten. European Convention on Human Rights, Article 8 protects the right to respect for private and family life, home, and correspondence.

India

In 2017, the Supreme Court of India ruled that the right to privacy is a fundamental right protected under the Constitution of India, underlining its importance to freedoms and personal liberty.

India also has specific regulations for the protection of personal data in the digital environment, though a comprehensive data protection law is under consideration to enhance privacy protections under the Information Technology Act, 2000 and Rules.

Brazil

Enacted in August 2020, the LGPD is influenced by the General Data Protection Law (LGPD) and establishes detailed rules for the collection, use, processing, and storage of personal data. It emphasizes consent and grants individuals rights over their data.

China

Implemented in November 2021, Personal Information Protection Law (PIPL) is China's first comprehensive data protection law. It shares similarities with the GDPR but also reflects China's unique legal and social context, with a notable focus on national security and social governance.

Canada

Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA) governs how private sector organizations collect, use, and disclose personal information in the course of commercial activities across Canada, except in provinces with substantially similar laws.

Australia

Privacy Act 1988 includes the Australian Privacy Principles (APPs), which outline how most Australian Government agencies, all private sector and not-for-profit organisations with an annual turnover of more than $3 million, and all private health service providers must handle, use, and manage personal information.

Japan

Act on the Protection of Personal Information (APPI) Revised significantly in 2020, the APPI regulates the use of personal data and is considered Japan's counterpart to the GDPR, with a focus on data subject rights and cross-border data transfer protections.

These examples illustrate the global landscape of privacy law, which ranges from comprehensive data protection regimes in places like the EU and Brazil to more sector-specific approaches in the U.S., and evolving frameworks in countries like India and China. Despite these differences, there is a growing global consensus on the importance of protecting individuals' privacy rights in the face of rapid technological advancements and increasing data flows.

Right to Privacy in India

The right to privacy in India has evolved significantly, especially in recent years, to become a fundamental right protected under the Indian Constitution. This evolution reflects India's commitment to protecting the personal freedoms and dignity of its citizens in the face of technological advancements and growing concerns about data protection.

Constitutional Recognition

The landmark judgment that established the right to privacy as a fundamental right in India came from the Supreme Court in August 2017, in the case of Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) vs Union Of India And Ors. The Court unanimously ruled that the right to privacy is protected as an intrinsic part of the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 and as a part of the freedoms guaranteed by Part III of the Indian Constitution.

Implications of the Judgment

This judgment has wide-ranging implications for various aspects of law and policy, including:

Data Protection: It laid the foundation for more stringent data protection laws and policies, acknowledging the need for regulations that safeguard personal data against unauthorized use.

Aadhaar Case: The verdict played a crucial role in the Aadhaar case (Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) vs Union Of India, September 2018), where the Supreme Court upheld the constitutional validity of the Aadhaar scheme but with conditions to ensure privacy, such as striking down Section 57 of the Aadhaar Act to prevent private companies from demanding Aadhaar for identification.

Sexual Orientation: The judgment also had implications for the recognition of privacy concerning personal choices, including sexual orientation, leading to the decriminalization of homosexuality in India in 2018 (Navtej Singh Johar vs Union Of India).

Legal and Regulatory Framework

Following the Supreme Court's decision, there has been a push toward establishing a more robust legal framework for data protection in India:

Personal Data Protection Bill: Inspired by global standards such as the GDPR, India has been working on its own data protection law, the Personal Data Protection Bill, which aims to regulate the use of individual data by the government and private entities. However, as of my last update in April 2023, the Bill was still under consideration and had not been enacted into law.

Information Technology Act, 2000: Before the Personal Data Protection Bill, the primary law dealing with data protection in India was the Information Technology Act, 2000, and its rules, which address electronic commerce and cybercrime, including certain provisions about data privacy.

The right to privacy in India represents a critical balance between individual freedoms and the needs of the digital economy and state security. The legal landscape continues to evolve, reflecting the ongoing dialogue between privacy rights, technological innovation, and regulatory frameworks.

Article 21 of the Constitution and the right to privacy

Article 21 of the Indian Constitution is a fundamental provision that guarantees the protection of life and personal liberty. It states, "No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law." 

Historically, Article 21 was interpreted narrowly, focusing mainly on physical restraints or deprivations. However, the Supreme Court, through various judgments, expanded the interpretation to include a wide range of rights that are essential for the enjoyment of life and personal liberty, effectively embedding the right to privacy within its ambit.

Over the years, the interpretation of Article 21 has significantly evolved, especially with the landmark judgment by the Supreme Court of India in the case of Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) vs Union Of India And Ors. in 2017, which explicitly recognized the right to privacy as an intrinsic part of the right to life and personal liberty.

Landmark Judgment: Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) vs Union Of India And Ors.

The Supreme Court's unanimous decision in the Puttaswamy case marked a turning point for the right to privacy in India. The nine-judge bench overruled previous Supreme Court judgments that had held that privacy was not a fundamental right, thereby affirming that privacy is protected under Article 21 and other parts of the Constitution that guarantee fundamental rights.

The court recognized privacy as a conglomeration of various rights, including the rights to personal autonomy, bodily integrity, protection of personal information, and the freedom to make choices about one's own life. This broad understanding of privacy extends to various aspects of existence, encompassing the physical realm, informational privacy, and the autonomy to make personal choices.

Implications of the Judgment

The recognition of the right to privacy as a fundamental right under Article 21 has several implications:

Data Protection and Privacy Laws: The judgment served as a catalyst for the development of more stringent data protection and privacy laws in India, emphasizing the need to protect individuals' data from unauthorized access and use.

Aadhaar and Other Policies: It critically examined the Aadhaar project, leading to significant changes to ensure that the use of Aadhaar complies with privacy principles. It also impacts various policies and practices that must now align with the privacy standards set by this judgment.

Personal Freedoms: The ruling supports the protection of a range of personal freedoms, including sexual orientation, marital choices, and food preferences, among others, affirming that these choices are part of the right to privacy.

State Surveillance: The judgment imposes limits on state surveillance, requiring that any invasion of privacy by the state must satisfy the conditions of legality, necessity, and proportionality.

The Supreme Court's decision to include the right to privacy within Article 21's guarantee of life and personal liberty represents a pivotal enhancement of constitutional rights in India. It underscores the Constitution's living nature, adapting to contemporary challenges and advancing the protection of fundamental human rights in the digital age. This judgment reaffirms the importance of personal freedoms, autonomy, and dignity in the face of growing technological advancements and state powers.

Right to Privacy and Government Surveillance

The intersection of the right to privacy and government surveillance has been a contentious issue globally, balancing individual privacy rights against national security and law enforcement needs. With the advancement of technology, the capability of governments to conduct surveillance—be it through internet tracking, phone tapping, or the use of drones and other monitoring devices—has significantly increased, raising concerns about the potential for privacy infringements.

In India, the Supreme Court's landmark judgment in Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) vs Union Of India And Ors. (2017) recognized privacy as a fundamental right under Article 21 of the Constitution, which protects life and personal liberty. This recognition imposes a constitutional check on government surveillance activities, ensuring they must meet the criteria of legality, necessity, and proportionality to be deemed valid.

Legal and Ethical Considerations

Any surveillance by the government must be authorized by law. This means there must be a legal framework in place that explicitly allows such surveillance, detailing the scope, manner, and conditions under which surveillance can be carried out.

Government surveillance must serve a legitimate state aim, such as national security, prevention of crime, or protection of public health.

The surveillance measures must be proportionate to the needs of the legitimate aim being pursued. This implies that the measures should be the least intrusive means necessary to achieve the objective and should be accompanied by adequate safeguards against abuse.

To protect the right to privacy while allowing for necessary government surveillance, several safeguards and forms of oversight are essential:

Many democracies require that surveillance activities, especially those potentially infringing on individual privacy, be approved by a court or judicial body.

Legislative bodies often have committees or oversight mechanisms to review and regulate surveillance practices, ensuring they comply with legal standards and respect privacy rights.

While operational details of surveillance programs may not be publicly disclosed, the existence of such programs, their legal basis, and oversight mechanisms should be transparent to ensure accountability.

Individuals should have avenues to seek redressal if their privacy rights are violated by government surveillance.

Global Perspective

The debate over privacy and government surveillance is not unique to India; it's a global concern. Different countries have different legal frameworks and societal norms regarding surveillance. For example, the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) sets strict limits on data collection and processing, emphasizing individual privacy rights. In contrast, other countries may grant their governments relatively broad surveillance powers in the interest of national security.

In an era of advancing technologies, the Court recognized the critical need to safeguard individuals' informational privacy more effectively. While the right to privacy is not absolute and can be limited by law, any restrictions must follow a legally established procedure. The Court emphasized that the government must implement adequate mechanisms to protect the personal and biometric information of citizens, ensuring that data is used solely for its intended purpose and not for surveillance.

In summary, while government surveillance is sometimes necessary for national security and public safety, it must be conducted within the bounds of law, respecting the fundamental right to privacy. Balancing these interests requires a nuanced approach, ensuring that surveillance practices are subject to strict legal standards, oversight, and accountability mechanisms.

Important Cases on Right to Privacy

The potential for government misuse of surveillance capabilities poses significant concerns. Authorities may exploit these powers to establish a regime of constant monitoring, effectively stifling any opposition. Such practices constitute a violation of individuals' privacy rights. High-profile cases like the Pegasus Spyware attacks and the Cambridge Analytica scandal illustrate instances where governments are accused of conducting surveillance on individuals. These incidents have been widely condemned as severe breaches of privacy, highlighting the risks associated with such invasive monitoring techniques.

The legality of surveillance provisions was scrutinized in several landmark cases, including M.P. Sharma v. Satish Chandra (1954), Kharak Singh v. State of Uttar Pradesh (1963), and Govind v. State of Madhya Pradesh (1975), all of which centered on allegations of privacy infringement. The Supreme Court's stance varied across these cases.

M.P. Sharma v. Satish Chandra (1954): the Court ruled that search and seizure operations do not infringe on the right to privacy, arguing that the Constitution does not explicitly guarantee such a right. It justified these powers as essential for upholding law and order and facilitating police functions.

Kharak Singh vs State of Uttar Pradesh (1963): This case involved a challenge to the Uttar Pradesh Police Regulations, which allowed for surveillance activities like domiciliary visits and secret picketing. The Supreme Court held that certain aspects of the regulations violated the "personal liberty" of individuals. However, the court did not explicitly recognize a fundamental right to privacy at this time.

Gobind vs State of Madhya Pradesh (1975): In this case, the Supreme Court took a step forward by acknowledging that the right to privacy could be inferred from the Constitution's provisions on the “right to life” and “personal liberty.” This case set the stage for the recognition of privacy as a constitutional right.

R. Rajagopal vs State of Tamil Nadu (1994): Also known as the Auto Shankar case, this marked a significant moment in the recognition of the right to privacy in India. The Supreme Court explicitly recognized the right to privacy as a part of the right to life under Article 21 of the Constitution, establishing that individuals have a right to privacy against state and non-state actors.

People's Union for Civil Liberties (PUCL) vs Union of India (1997): This case was pivotal for privacy in the context of communication surveillance. The Supreme Court laid down guidelines for wiretapping under the Indian Telegraph Act, emphasizing the need to protect individuals' privacy.

Aadhaar Case (Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) vs Union Of India, 2017): This landmark judgment by a nine-judge bench of the Supreme Court was a defining moment in the legal history of privacy in India. The court unanimously held that the right to privacy is protected as an intrinsic part of the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 of the Constitution, overruling previous judgments that had found otherwise. This case was specifically in response to challenges against the Aadhaar program and concerns over privacy and data protection.

Navtej Singh Johar vs Union of India (2018): Following the landmark 2017 decision on privacy, this case decriminalized consensual homosexual acts among adults in private. The Supreme Court cited the right to privacy and dignity in striking down Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code to the extent that it criminalized consensual sexual conduct between adults of the same sex.

These cases highlight the evolving jurisprudence on the right to privacy in India, from its initial non-recognition to its establishment as a fundamental right integral to the right to life and personal liberty.

M.P. Sharma v. Satish Chandra (1954)

The case of M.P. Sharma v. Satish Chandra, District Magistrate, Delhi (1954) is a landmark judgment by the Supreme Court of India, which played a significant role in the early development of the legal framework surrounding the right to privacy in India. This case is often discussed in the context of privacy rights because it was one of the earliest instances where the Supreme Court had the opportunity to delve into the issue of privacy under the Indian Constitution.

Case Details:

Citation: 1954 SCR 1077

Year of Judgment: 1954

Bench: An eight-judge bench of the Supreme Court, which was a significant composition, showing the importance of the case.

Background:

The case revolved around search and seizure operations conducted at the premises of Dalmia Jain Airways Ltd., among others, under the orders of the District Magistrate of Delhi. The search was conducted as part of an investigation into alleged embezzlement of funds. The petitioners challenged the validity of the searches and seizures, arguing that they violated their fundamental rights, particularly the right to property under Article 19(1)(f) (which was applicable at the time) and the right against self-incrimination under Article 20(3) of the Constitution of India.

Judgment:

The Supreme Court, in its judgment, held that the searches and seizures were not unconstitutional. Regarding the privacy aspect, the Court observed that the Indian Constitution does not specifically guarantee the right to privacy as a fundamental right. The Court looked into the provisions related to search and seizure under the Indian legal framework and concluded that the Constitution makers did not intend to subject such provisions to a fundamental right of privacy.

Significance:

M.P. Sharma v. Satish Chandra was significant because it set a precedent that the Constitution did not inherently protect the right to privacy. This position was reflective of the judicial thinking regarding privacy rights during that period.

The judgment held sway for several decades until the landscape of privacy rights in India began to change with subsequent judgments and the evolving interpretation of the Constitution.

Impact on Privacy Law Development:

Although the M.P. Sharma case initially suggested a restrictive view of privacy rights under the Indian Constitution, the legal discourse on privacy evolved over the years. Notably, the K.S. Puttaswamy v. Union of India (2017) judgment by a nine-judge bench of the Supreme Court overruled past precedents to a certain extent by explicitly recognizing the right to privacy as a fundamental right under the Constitution. This landmark decision significantly expanded the scope of privacy rights in India, marking a departure from the principles laid down in cases like M.P. Sharma.

The evolution from M.P. Sharma v. Satish Chandra to K.S. Puttaswamy reflects the dynamic nature of constitutional interpretation and the growing recognition of privacy as a crucial aspect of individual liberty and dignity.

Kharak Singh v. State of U.P. (1963)

The case of Kharak Singh v. State of U.P. (1963) is another landmark judgment in the context of privacy rights in India, preceding the more recent developments that explicitly recognized privacy as a fundamental right. This case was significant in the evolution of privacy jurisprudence in India and laid down some of the early foundations for the interpretation of privacy rights under the Indian Constitution.

Case Details:

Citation: 1963 (1) SCR 332

Year of Judgment: 1963

Bench: A six-judge bench of the Supreme Court of India

Background:

Kharak Singh, a suspect in a dacoity case who was released due to lack of evidence, challenged the surveillance procedures applied to him under the U.P. Police Regulations. These regulations allowed for domiciliary visits at night, secret picketing of his house, tracking, and inquiry into acts and movements, which Kharak Singh argued infringed upon his fundamental rights, particularly the right to privacy.

Judgment:

The Supreme Court, while deliberating on this case, made several observations regarding personal liberty and privacy. The Court held that the domiciliary visits (night visits) were unconstitutional as they violated Article 21 of the Constitution, which guarantees the right to life and personal liberty. However, the Court stopped short of declaring a specific, explicit right to privacy as a fundamental right. It noted that other surveillance measures provided under the U.P. Police Regulations did not infringe upon any constitutional rights.

Significance:

The judgment was pivotal in acknowledging aspects of privacy and personal liberty under Article 21, even though it did not fully endorse a standalone right to privacy at the time.

The case is often cited for its discussion on personal liberty and the interpretation of Article 21 of the Constitution.

Impact on Privacy Law Development:

Kharak Singh v. State of U.P. played a crucial role in the discourse around privacy in India, setting the stage for further legal debates and eventual recognition of privacy as a fundamental right. The case highlighted the tension between state surveillance and individual rights, a theme that remains highly relevant in discussions on privacy and government powers.

The principles discussed in this case were revisited and expanded upon in the landmark K.S. Puttaswamy v. Union of India (2017) judgment, where the Supreme Court explicitly recognized the right to privacy as a fundamental right protected under the Indian Constitution. The Puttaswamy judgment overruled previous judgments that had held that privacy was not a fundamental right, marking a significant shift in the legal landscape regarding privacy in India.

Govind v. State of Madhya Pradesh (1975)

The case of Govind v. State of Madhya Pradesh (1975) is a pivotal judgment in the context of privacy rights in India, as it further developed the legal discourse on privacy initiated by earlier cases like M.P. Sharma and Kharak Singh. This case played a crucial role in the evolution of privacy jurisprudence in India and is often cited in discussions about the constitutional framework of privacy rights.

Case Details:

Citation: 1975 SCC (2) 148

Year of Judgment: 1975

Bench: A three-judge bench of the Supreme Court of India

Background:

Govind, the petitioner, challenged the surveillance procedures being applied to him under the Madhya Pradesh Police Regulations, which were similar to those challenged in the Kharak Singh case. These regulations allowed for surveillance measures including shadowing, domiciliary visits, and tracking, which Govind contended violated his fundamental rights, particularly focusing on the right to privacy.

Judgment:

The Supreme Court recognized that while the Indian Constitution does not explicitly mention the right to privacy, such a right is essential to personal liberty under Article 21. The Court observed that the right to privacy is not absolute and could be lawfully restricted for the prevention of crime, disorder, or protection of health or morals or protection of rights and freedoms of others.

The judgment by Justice Mathew famously noted that the right to privacy could be inferred from the existing constitutional guarantees, drawing from Articles 19 (1)(a) (freedom of speech and expression) and 21 (right to life and personal liberty).

Significance:

Govind v. State of M.P. is significant for its explicit acknowledgment of privacy as a facet of personal liberty, albeit not an absolute right.

The judgment laid down guidelines for regulating surveillance activities by the state, insisting on a balance between individual rights and the public interest.

Impact on Privacy Law Development:

This case contributed to the foundation for understanding privacy rights in India, signaling a shift towards recognizing privacy as a fundamental, albeit limited, right. It established a legal basis for arguing that a constitutional right to privacy could be derived from the fundamental rights guaranteed by the Constitution.

State of Maharashtra & Ors. v. Madhukar Narayan Mardikar (1991)

The case of State of Maharashtra & Ors. v. Madhukar Narayan Mardikar (1991) is a landmark judgment by the Supreme Court of India that underscores the importance of women's rights and dignity, particularly in the context of privacy and protection against arbitrary actions by the state and its officials.

Case Details:

  • Citation: 1991 SCR (1) 57, 1991 SCC (1) 57
  • Year of Judgment: 1991
  • Bench: Justice R.M. Sahai and Justice K. Ramaswamy

Background:

The case involved a police inspector, Madhukar Narayan Mardikar, who was accused of misusing his authority by abducting and molesting a woman. The woman filed a complaint against the inspector, leading to legal proceedings. The key issue revolved around the misuse of power by a law enforcement officer and the violation of the woman's right to live with dignity, which is integral to her right to privacy and personal liberty.

Judgment:

The Supreme Court, in its judgment, emphasized that no one, including a woman, should be subjected to harassment or torture physically or mentally by anyone, including the state authorities. The Court held that the right to dignity and privacy is intrinsic to the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 of the Constitution of India and cannot be violated unless justified by law.

The Court unequivocally stated that even a woman of easy virtue is entitled to privacy and no one can invade her privacy as long as she is not a threat to public decency or morality. The judgment highlighted that dignity of an individual is a fundamental right and is not diminished by one's gender or behavior.

Significance:

State of Maharashtra v. Madhukar Narayan Mardikar is significant for its strong stand on protecting women's rights and dignity, reinforcing that these rights are sacrosanct and not conditional on the individual's social standing or moral character.

The case reaffirmed the constitutional guarantee of the right to privacy and personal liberty, extending its protection to all individuals, including those marginalized or judged by society.

Impact:

This judgment is often cited in cases related to gender justice, privacy, and the protection of individual dignity against arbitrary actions by the state or its officials. It set a precedent for future cases involving the rights and dignity of women, contributing to the broader legal discourse on gender equality and privacy rights in India.

R Rajagopal v. State of Tamil Nadu (1995)

The case of R. Rajagopal v. State of Tamil Nadu (1995), also known as the Auto Shankar case, is a landmark judgment by the Supreme Court of India that significantly contributed to the jurisprudence regarding freedom of the press and the right to privacy in India.

Case Details:

Citation: 1995 SCC (2) 161

Year of Judgment: 1995

Bench: Justice B.L. Hansaria and Justice S. Mohan

Background:

The petitioner, R. Rajagopal, was the editor of a Tamil magazine named 'Nakkheeran'. He intended to publish the autobiography of Auto Shankar, a convicted serial killer, which purportedly contained references to his interactions with various government officials and policemen. The State of Tamil Nadu sought to restrain the publication, arguing it would invade the privacy of the individuals mentioned and defame them.

Judgment:

The Supreme Court rejected the state's contention and laid down guidelines balancing the right to privacy against the freedom of the press. The Court held that:

A public official's right to privacy is subordinate to the public's right to know, especially when it involves a matter affecting public welfare.

The freedom of the press extends to publishing true facts about the involvement of public officials in acts of crime, provided it is in the public interest.

The right to privacy cannot be infringed without a law authorizing the infringement, which must also pass the test of compelling public interest.

The Court also noted that individuals have a right to privacy that cannot be invaded without a legal justification, but this right is not absolute and can be restricted on grounds of public interest.

Significance:

R. Rajagopal v. State of Tamil Nadu is significant for its explicit recognition of the right to privacy as implicit under the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 of the Indian Constitution.

It established a precedent that the freedom of the press includes the right to write about public figures, provided the content is true and published for public good, thereby setting a balance between the right to privacy and the freedom of speech and expression.

The judgment is a cornerstone for media law in India, providing a clear framework for when and how the media can report on the lives of individuals, especially public officials.

PUCL v. Union of India (1997)

The case of PUCL v. Union of India (1997) is a landmark judgment by the Supreme Court of India that addressed the issue of telephone tapping and its implications on the right to privacy under Article 21 of the Constitution of India.

Case Details:

Citation: (1997) 1 SCC 301

Year of Judgment: 1997

Bench: Justice Kuldip Singh and Justice S. Saghir Ahmad

Background:

The Public Union for Civil Liberties (PUCL), a human rights organization, filed a petition challenging the constitutionality of Section 5(2) of the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885, which permitted the interception of phone communications under certain conditions. PUCL argued that the provisions for wiretapping were a violation of the right to privacy, which is implicit in the right to life and personal liberty guaranteed under Article 21 of the Constitution.

Judgment:

The Supreme Court acknowledged the right to privacy as a part of the right to life and personal liberty. However, it also recognized the state's power to intercept communications for the sake of public security and order, provided there are adequate safeguards to prevent abuse of this power. The Court issued guidelines to ensure that telephone tapping is done only in situations where it is necessary and in the interest of public safety or public order. The guidelines issued by the Court included:

  • Telephone tapping is permissible only in cases of a public emergency or in the interest of public safety.
  • Orders for interception must be issued by the Home Secretary of the Central or State Government.
  • The orders for interception must be specific and cannot have an indefinite duration.
  • A review committee must review the intercepted communications to ensure that the interception is in accordance with the law.
  • The intercepted material must be used and stored in a manner that protects the privacy of the individual.

Significance:

PUCL v. Union of India (1997) is significant for explicitly recognizing the right to privacy in the context of communication and setting legal standards for governmental surveillance activities.

The judgment established that while the state has the authority to intercept communications for legitimate purposes, this power must be exercised within the boundaries of the law, with adequate safeguards to protect individuals' privacy rights.

The case set a precedent for balancing national security concerns with the fundamental right to privacy, guiding future legislations and policies regarding surveillance and data protection in India.

Mr. X v. Hospital Z (1998)

The case of Mr. X v. Hospital Z (1998) is a landmark judgment in Indian legal history concerning the rights to privacy, confidentiality, and the duty to disclose in the context of HIV/AIDS. This case highlighted the tension between an individual's right to privacy and the public interest in preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS.

Facts of the Case:

Mr. X, a doctor by profession, was engaged to be married, and as part of the pre-marital procedure, he underwent medical tests, including an HIV test, at Hospital Z. The test results revealed that Mr. X was HIV positive. The hospital staff, without Mr. X's consent, disclosed his HIV status to his fiancée and her family, leading to the cancellation of the marriage. Mr. X filed a lawsuit against Hospital Z for breach of confidentiality and invasion of privacy.

Legal Issues:

The primary legal issues in this case revolved around the right to privacy versus the duty to warn. The court was faced with determining whether the hospital's duty to maintain patient confidentiality was outweighed by the need to inform Mr. X's fiancée of his HIV status to prevent potential harm.

Judgment:

The Supreme Court of India ruled in favor of Hospital Z, stating that although the right to privacy is important, in this case, the fiancée's right to be informed about Mr. X's HIV status was deemed more critical. The court held that the risk of spreading HIV/AIDS justified the breach of confidentiality in the interest of protecting public health. The court also noted that the fiancée had a right to know about Mr. X's health condition to make an informed decision about the marriage.

Hinsa Virodhak Sangh v. Mirzapur Moti Kuresh Jamat (2008)

The case of Hinsa Virodhak Sangh v. Mirzapur Moti Kuresh Jamat (2008) is a notable judgment by the Supreme Court of India that dealt with the issue of animal rights, specifically in the context of the practice of slaughtering animals for meat. This case is significant for its exploration of the balance between religious practices and animal rights under Indian law.

Facts of the Case:

The petitioner, Hinsa Virodhak Sangh, a group advocating non-violence against animals, filed a petition seeking to ban the slaughter of animals in public places, specifically targeting the practice carried out by members of the Mirzapur Moti Kuresh Jamat, a community that conducted ritual animal slaughter during the festival of Bakr-Id.

Legal Issues:

The central legal issue revolved around whether the practice of slaughtering animals in public places as part of religious rituals could be restricted or banned in the interest of public order, morality, and health, and how these considerations balanced against the community's right to practice their religion as guaranteed under Article 25 of the Indian Constitution.

Judgment:

The Supreme Court, in its judgment, acknowledged the importance of religious freedom but also recognized the need to regulate practices involving animal slaughter to ensure public health and safety. The court did not impose an outright ban on the ritual slaughter of animals but emphasized that such practices should be carried out in designated slaughterhouses to ensure hygiene and public order. The court also made it clear that the rights under Article 25 of the Constitution, which guarantees the freedom of religion, are subject to public order, morality, and health, and therefore can be regulated by the state.

Jamiruddin Ahmed v. State of West Bengal (2008)

The case of Jamiruddin Ahmed v. State of West Bengal (2008) is a significant judgment in the context of Indian criminal law, particularly concerning the rights of the accused and the procedural aspects related to arrest and detention.

Facts of the Case:

Jamiruddin Ahmed was involved in a legal proceeding where the key issue pertained to his arrest and the subsequent procedures followed by the law enforcement authorities in the state of West Bengal. The specific details of the allegations against Ahmed and the context of his arrest would pertain to the legal and factual matrix presented to the court.

Legal Issues:

The case primarily revolved around the legality of the arrest and detention of Jamiruddin Ahmed, examining whether the procedures followed by the police were in compliance with the provisions of the Indian Constitution and the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC). It delved into issues such as the necessity of furnishing an arrest memo, informing the detainee of the reasons for arrest, and the rights of the accused under Indian law.

Judgment:

While the specific rulings and observations made by the court in Jamiruddin Ahmed v. State of West Bengal (2008) would depend on the intricacies of the case's arguments, such cases generally lead the courts to reiterate the fundamental rights of individuals against unlawful detention and the importance of following established legal procedures during arrests. Courts often underscore the need for law enforcement agencies to adhere strictly to the procedural safeguards provided in the CrPC and the Constitution to protect individuals' liberty and prevent misuse of power.

Ram Jethmalani & Ors. v. Union of India (2011)

The case of Ram Jethmalani & Ors. v. Union of India (2011) is a landmark judgment by the Supreme Court of India that significantly impacted the legal and regulatory landscape regarding black money and the repatriation of wealth hidden in foreign bank accounts. This case is often cited in discussions about the fight against corruption, transparency in governance, and the accountability of public officials and entities.

Facts of the Case:

The petition was filed by Ram Jethmalani, a renowned lawyer and politician, along with others, seeking directions against the Union of India and its various departments, to take steps to bring back black money stashed away in foreign banks. The petitioners argued that such wealth represents a massive loss to the Indian economy and is detrimental to the country's interests.

Legal Issues:

  • The case centered on several critical legal and constitutional issues, including:
  • The government's duty to combat corruption and bring back assets illegally held in foreign banks.
  • The right of citizens to know about the efforts being taken by their government in addressing the issue of black money.
  • The application of international agreements and the role of bilateral treaties in tracing and repatriating illicit financial assets.

Judgment:

The Supreme Court delivered a significant verdict, emphasizing the government's responsibility to actively pursue the recovery of black money. The court constituted a Special Investigation Team (SIT), headed by a former judge of the Supreme Court, to investigate the matter and execute the necessary actions to repatriate black money to India. The judgment underscored the importance of transparency and accountability in governance and recognized the detrimental effect of corruption and black money on the country's economic and social fabric.

Implications:

The Ram Jethmalani & Ors. v. Union of India case had profound implications for the legal, economic, and political narrative in India:

It highlighted the judiciary's proactive role in addressing issues of national importance and public interest.

The case led to increased scrutiny of the efforts made by the government and financial institutions to tackle the problem of black money and illicit financial flows.

It prompted legislative and policy measures aimed at improving transparency, strengthening the legal framework against corruption, and enhancing international cooperation in the fight against illegal wealth.

This case is considered a milestone in the ongoing efforts to ensure accountability and reduce corruption, representing a significant step towards the repatriation of assets illegally held abroad and the promotion of a transparent and accountable governance system.

Ramlila Maidan Incident v. Home Secretary, Union of India & Ors. (2012)

The case of Ramlila Maidan Incident v. Home Secretary, Union of India & Ors. (2012) is a landmark judgment by the Supreme Court of India, focusing on the fundamental rights to freedom of speech and assembly, and the use of state power against citizens. This case arose from an incident that took place in June 2011, during an anti-corruption protest led by Baba Ramdev at Ramlila Maidan, New Delhi.

Background:

The incident involved a midnight crackdown by the Delhi Police on sleeping protestors at Ramlila Maidan, who were part of Baba Ramdev's hunger strike against corruption and black money. The police action, which included the use of tear gas shells and lathicharge, resulted in injuries to many protestors and was widely condemned for its excessive force and violation of democratic rights.

Legal Issues:

  • The core issues before the Supreme Court included:
  • The right to assembly and peaceful protest in a democracy.
  • The extent of the state's authority to disperse an assembly deemed lawful.
  • The principles governing the use of force by law enforcement agencies.
  • The accountability of the state and its officials for violations of fundamental rights.

Judgment:

The Supreme Court's judgment was critical of the police action at Ramlila Maidan, highlighting the violation of the fundamental rights of the protestors. The Court emphasized the importance of the rights to freedom of speech and peaceful assembly as essential components of a democratic society. It acknowledged that while the state has the right to maintain public order, the use of force must be proportionate, necessary, and applied in a manner that minimizes damage or injury.

The Court made several important observations and directives:

It condemned the use of excessive force and the manner in which the eviction was carried out, stating that it was not in accordance with the procedure established by law.

The judgment underscored the need for law enforcement agencies to act within the bounds of the Constitution and respect the rights of citizens.

It highlighted the duty of the state to protect and facilitate the exercise of fundamental rights, including the right to peacefully protest against government policies.

Implications:

The Ramlila Maidan Incident v. Home Secretary, Union of India & Ors. (2012) case had significant implications for the relationship between the state and its citizens, particularly in the context of protests and assemblies:

It served as a reminder of the state's responsibilities and limitations when dealing with peaceful protests.

The judgment reinforced the judiciary's role in upholding fundamental rights and provided a benchmark for evaluating state actions against protestors.

It contributed to the ongoing discourse on the balance between state authority and individual freedoms in a democratic society.

This case is often cited in discussions on civil liberties, police reform, and the right to protest, marking a crucial point in the legal landscape regarding the exercise of democratic freedoms in India.

Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) v Union Of India (2017)

The case of Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) v Union Of India (2017) is a landmark judgment by the Supreme Court of India, which unanimously affirmed that the right to privacy is protected as an intrinsic part of the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 and as a part of the freedoms guaranteed by Part III of the Indian Constitution. This case is significant for its profound impact on privacy laws in India and has laid the groundwork for future legislation and judgments related to privacy, data protection, and individual freedoms.

Background:

The case originated from a petition filed by Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) challenging the constitutional validity of Aadhaar, a biometric-based digital identity scheme initiated by the Government of India. The main contention was whether the collection and storage of biometric data for Aadhaar, which was becoming an essential requirement for accessing various government services and benefits, infringe on the individual's right to privacy.

Legal Issues:

The core legal issue before the Supreme Court was whether the right to privacy could be considered a fundamental right under the Indian Constitution. The government argued that the Constitution does not explicitly guarantee a right to privacy and that restrictions on personal liberties could be justified for the greater public interest.

Judgment:

The nine-judge bench of the Supreme Court delivered a unanimous verdict, holding that the right to privacy is protected under the Constitution of India. The key points from the judgment include:

The right to privacy is an intrinsic part of the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 and other freedoms guaranteed by Part III of the Constitution.

Privacy is not an absolute right and is subject to certain reasonable restrictions as specified under Article 21 for legitimate aims of the state.

The decision overruled previous Supreme Court judgments in M.P. Sharma and Kharak Singh cases, which had held that privacy was not a fundamental right.

The judgment emphasized the need for a careful balance between individual interests and legitimate concerns of the state, including national security, prevention of crime, promotion of social welfare, etc.

Implications:

The Puttaswamy judgment has had wide-ranging implications for privacy and data protection in India:

It set the stage for the scrutiny of various laws and policies in light of the right to privacy, including the Aadhaar scheme itself, which was later upheld in 2018 with certain restrictions and conditions.

The judgment has been pivotal in discussions around the Personal Data Protection Bill, which seeks to establish a comprehensive data protection regime in India.

It has also influenced various other judgments and legal discussions around the rights to sexual orientation, freedom of speech, and personal autonomy.

Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) v Union Of India (2017) is considered a milestone in the evolution of constitutional law in India, affirming privacy as a fundamental right and ensuring the protection of personal liberties against intrusive state actions.

Privacy Laws in India

Privacy laws in India have evolved significantly, especially with the advent of technology and the internet, leading to an increased focus on data protection and privacy. While India does not have a specific consolidated privacy law, various legislations and judicial pronouncements have collectively laid down the legal framework for privacy protection. Here's an overview of the primary laws and regulations that deal with privacy in India:

Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act) and Rules:

The IT Act, along with the IT (Reasonable Security Practices and Procedures and Sensitive Personal Data or Information) Rules, 2011, is the primary legislation that deals with data protection and privacy in the digital environment. These rules define sensitive personal data, prescribe security practices for its protection, and lay down guidelines for its collection, storage, and disclosure.

The Personal Data Protection Bill (PDP Bill):

As of my last update in April 2023, the PDP Bill was a proposed legislation aimed at establishing a comprehensive data protection framework in India. It seeks to protect individuals' personal data, establish a Data Protection Authority, and set up processes for data processing, data transfer, and grievance redressal. However, it's important to check the current status as it might have been enacted or further amended.

Right to Privacy under the Constitution:

The Supreme Court's landmark judgment in Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) vs Union of India (2017) recognized the right to privacy as a fundamental right under the Constitution of India, protected under Article 21 (Right to Life and Personal Liberty) and other relevant parts of the Constitution.

Other Relevant Laws:

- Indian Penal Code, 1860: Contains provisions related to criminal trespass, house-trespass, and voyeurism which indirectly protect individuals' privacy.

- The Consumer Protection Act, 2019: Provides for the protection of consumers' personal information.

- The Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Act, 2016: Regulates the use of Aadhaar numbers and the protection of information collected under the Aadhaar project.

Sector-Specific Regulations:

There are also sector-specific regulations for privacy and data protection, such as those issued by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) for the financial sector, and by the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) for the insurance sector, which mandate the protection of personal information.

The landscape of privacy laws in India is dynamic and continually evolving in response to technological advancements, societal needs, and international standards. The proposed Personal Data Protection Bill, once enacted, will significantly alter this landscape, bringing India closer to global data protection standards like the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).

Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act) and Rules

The Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act) of India, along with its rules, is a comprehensive law that deals with cybercrime and electronic commerce (e-commerce). It was enacted to provide a legal framework to facilitate electronic transactions, regulate cyber activities, and address cybercrimes. Over the years, the IT Act has been amended and supplemented with various rules to keep up with the evolving digital landscape. Below are some key aspects of the IT Act and its associated rules:

Key Provisions of the IT Act, 2000:

Legal Recognition of Electronic Records and Digital Signatures: The Act gives electronic records and digital signatures the same legal status as traditional paper documents and signatures.

Cyber Offences: It defines various cybercrimes, such as hacking (Section 66), identity theft (Section 66C), violation of privacy (Section 66E), and cyber terrorism (Section 66F), and prescribes penalties for them.

Regulation of Certifying Authorities: The Act provides a framework for the issuance of digital signatures through the regulation of Certifying Authorities to enhance trust in electronic transactions.

Due Diligence by Intermediaries: It mandates intermediaries (like ISPs, social media platforms, etc.) to follow certain guidelines to not knowingly host, publish, or share unlawful information. It also provides intermediaries with a safe harbor from liability under certain conditions (Section 79).

Amendments:

Information Technology (Amendment) Act, 2008: This amendment introduced several significant changes, including the introduction of Section 66A (which was later struck down by the Supreme Court in 2015), provisions for data protection and privacy, and the establishment of the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) as the national nodal agency for responding to cybersecurity incidents.

Privacy-Related Sections of the IT Act, 2000:

Section 43A: This section imposes a penalty on corporate bodies for failing to protect sensitive personal data or information. It requires entities handling sensitive personal data to implement reasonable security practices and procedures to protect such information.

Section 66E: This section deals with the punishment for violation of privacy. It penalizes the capturing, publishing, or transmitting of the image of a private area of any person without his or her consent, under circumstances violating the privacy of that person.

Section 72: This section addresses the penalty for breach of confidentiality and privacy. It penalizes any person who, having secured access to any electronic record, book, register, correspondence, information, document, or other material without the consent of the person concerned, discloses such material to any other person.

Section 72A: This section provides for the punishment for disclosure of information in breach of a lawful contract. It specifically targets the disclosure of personal information obtained in the course of providing a service under a contract, emphasizing the legal obligation to maintain confidentiality.

The Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023

The journey towards enacting a Data Protection Act in India has been an extensive one. Initially, the Personal Data Protection Bill, 2018, was introduced in Parliament, a proposal crafted by the Justice Srikrishna Committee, established by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology. The draft bill faced pushback for its stipulation that required data fiduciaries to store at least one serving copy of customer information within India, aimed at simplifying law enforcement access to data. 

However, this provision raised significant concerns regarding privacy, as it would permit the state extensive access to process personal data, with the bill's regulatory framework being criticized for its limited independence, largely functioning under the auspices of the central government.

Subsequently, two additional versions of the bill were presented in Parliament in 2019 and 2021. Nonetheless, these too were withdrawn, with critiques focusing on their failure to establish a strong legal framework for safeguarding the digital data of Indian citizens.

Ultimately, the legislative process culminated on 11th August 2023 with the enactment of the Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023 (DPDP Act). This new legislation marks a significant milestone, offering a comprehensive strategy for the protection of individuals' digital data.

Highlights

The Bill encompasses the processing of digital personal data within India, including data gathered online or offline data that has been digitized. Furthermore, it extends to the processing of such data outside of India, provided it relates to the offer of goods or services within the country.

Personal data can only be processed for a lawful purpose and with the individual's consent. However, consent is not necessary for certain legitimate purposes, such as when individuals voluntarily share their data, or when the State processes data for issuing permits, licenses, providing benefits, and delivering services.

Data fiduciaries are tasked with ensuring data accuracy, safeguarding data, and deleting data once its intended purpose is fulfilled.

The Bill empowers individuals with several rights, including the right to access information, request corrections and deletions, and seek redress for grievances.

The central government holds the authority to exempt certain government agencies from the Bill's provisions for reasons such as national security, maintaining public order, and preventing offenses.

Additionally, the central government will establish the Data Protection Board of India to address instances of non-compliance with the Bill's provisions.

Key issues the Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023

Key issues and analysis of the proposed data protection framework reveal potential areas of concern that merit attention:

Exemptions for State Data Processing: Allowing the State to process data on grounds such as national security might lead to excessive data collection, processing, and retention, potentially infringing on individuals' right to privacy. Such broad exemptions could result in privacy violations if not strictly limited to what is necessary and proportionate.

Lack of Regulation on Processing Risks: The Bill fails to address the risks of harm that may arise from the processing of personal data. Without explicit regulation on mitigating these risks, individuals' data could be mishandled or misused, leading to potential harm.

Limited Rights for Data Principals: Not including the right to data portability and the right to be forgotten limits the control data principals have over their personal data. The absence of these rights restricts individuals' ability to manage their online presence and control the dissemination of their information across different services.

Data Transfer to Other Countries: While the Bill permits the transfer of personal data outside India, it restricts transfers to countries specified by the central government. This approach may not adequately ensure that transferred data is subject to sufficient data protection standards in the recipient countries. A thorough evaluation mechanism for assessing foreign data protection regimes is necessary to protect transferred personal data effectively.

Composition and Tenure of the Data Protection Board: The proposed structure where members of the Data Protection Board are appointed for two years with eligibility for re-appointment could undermine the Board's independence. The short term and possibility of re-appointment might influence the Board's decisions, affecting its ability to function independently and ensure robust data protection enforcement.

These key issues highlight the need for careful consideration and potential revisions to the Bill to ensure it adequately protects privacy rights, provides comprehensive data protection, and establishes an independent and effective regulatory authority.

Is the right to privacy a fundamental right in India?

Yes, the right to privacy is recognized as a fundamental right in India. This landmark recognition came from the Supreme Court of India in the case of Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) vs Union Of India And Others (2017). The Court unanimously ruled that the right to privacy is protected under Article 21 of the Indian Constitution, which guarantees the right to life and personal liberty. 

The Court also noted that privacy is an intrinsic part of various other fundamental rights, including freedoms related to personal liberties, speech, movement, and dignity. This judgment significantly strengthened the legal framework for privacy rights in India, making it a cornerstone for discussions on privacy and personal freedom in the context of laws and policies that affect personal information, state surveillance, and individual autonomy.

When can the right to privacy be restricted?

The right to privacy, while fundamental, is not absolute and can be restricted under certain conditions. In India, restrictions on the right to privacy are considered legitimate if they satisfy the following criteria:

  • The restriction must be prescribed by law. This means that there must be a law in existence that allows for the restriction of privacy in specific circumstances.
  • The law imposing restrictions must seek to achieve a legitimate aim. This can include concerns such as national security, public order, public health, or morality, among others.
  • The restrictions imposed must be necessary in a democratic society. This means that the restriction must be the least intrusive measure available to achieve the intended aim.
  • The restrictions must be proportionate to the need for which they are imposed. This involves a balancing act between the restriction imposed and the right or freedom being restricted, ensuring that the measure is not excessive in relation to the legitimate aim being pursued.

The Supreme Court of India in the Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) vs Union Of India And Others (2017) case underscored these principles, noting that any infringement on privacy must meet the requirements of legality, necessity, and proportionality.

The enactment of the Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023, by the Parliament of India in August 2023 marks a significant step forward in the protection of personal data in the country. This legislation mandates data fiduciaries to implement necessary organizational and technical safeguards to secure individuals' personal data, addressing the growing concerns over data breaches and misuse of personal information.

A cornerstone of the Act is its emphasis on consent. It stipulates that personal data can only be collected, stored, and processed after receiving explicit consent from the individual concerned. This provision empowers individuals with greater control over their personal data, aligning with global standards of data protection and privacy rights. Moreover, individuals are granted the authority to withdraw their consent at any given time, offering an additional layer of security and autonomy over how their data is handled.

The Act represents a critical advancement in establishing a robust framework for data protection in India, ensuring that individuals' privacy rights are safeguarded while also accommodating the needs of digital innovation and economic growth.

In practical terms, this means that the government or any authority looking to restrict an individual's privacy must ensure that such a restriction is backed by law, justified by a legitimate aim, necessary for achieving that aim, and proportional to the need for restriction. This framework aims to safeguard individuals' rights while allowing for reasonable restrictions in specific, justified cases.

Conclusion

The recognition and protection of the right to privacy are fundamental to the preservation of individual freedom and dignity in an increasingly digital and interconnected world. The landmark judgment in Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) v Union Of India (2017) by the Supreme Court of India underscored the importance of privacy as a constitutional right, integral to personal liberty and human dignity. This ruling set a precedent, affirming that privacy is not an elite concern but a universal right that underpins the very essence of freedom, democracy, and personal autonomy.

The conclusion on the right to privacy emphasizes its critical role in safeguarding individuals from undue surveillance and intrusion by the state and non-state actors. However, it also acknowledges that this right is not absolute and can be subject to reasonable restrictions for legitimate state interests, such as national security, public order, and the general welfare of the populace, provided these restrictions are proportionate, necessary, and legally justified.

Moving forward, the challenge lies in striking a delicate balance between ensuring privacy and enabling legitimate state interests. This involves creating robust legal frameworks and mechanisms for data protection that are adaptable to technological advancements and evolving societal norms. The right to privacy also necessitates a proactive approach towards transparency, accountability, and the ethical use of technology by both state and private entities.

In conclusion, the right to privacy stands as a cornerstone of personal freedom, requiring vigilant protection and continuous evaluation in the face of emerging challenges. It is a right that not only preserves individual autonomy but also upholds the collective values of a democratic society, making it imperative for laws and policies to reflect its fundamental importance in the digital age.

Homepage: Barristery.in

COMMENTS

Name

10th Pass Govt Job,7,125 crpc,1,12th Paas Jobs,3,138 Ni Act,1,2024 National Lok Adalat Schedule,1,3 Years LL.B Colleges in West Bengal,1,3 Years LLB Course in India,1,3 Years LLB Course in Kalyani University,1,3 Years LLB Govt Colleges in India,1,3D Designer,1,4 year bed course,1,AAI Junior Executive Recruitment 2024,1,Acts,15,Admission,43,Agniveer,1,AIAPGET 2024,1,AIBE Exam,1,Aibe exam language,1,Aibe exam pattern,1,Aibe exam syllabus,1,Air Force Agniveer,1,aligarh muslim university case,1,aligarh muslim university issue,1,Aligarh Muslim University Minority Status Case,1,aligarh muslim university minority status case analysis,1,All Indian Government Exams after Graduation,1,amazon,1,Amazon Jobs,1,amazon seller,1,Amazon Work From Home Jobs,1,Amazon Work From Home Jobs For Freshers,1,Amex Law College,1,Amex Law College Fees,1,AP Ed CET 2024,1,AP PGCET 2024,1,AP PGECET 2024,1,APLAWCET/ APPGLCET 2024,1,application form for gun license,1,Apprentice,6,Are CV resume and bio data the same,1,Arms,1,Arms Act 1959,1,Arms Rules,1,Army Jobs,1,Article 21,1,Ashneer Grover Net Worth,1,Bail in bailable offences,1,Bail in non-bailable offences,1,Bailable and Non Bailable Offences,1,Balfour v Balfour Case,1,Bank Job Vacancy 2024,2,Bank Jobs,4,Bankura District Court Recruitment,1,Basic Structure Doctrine,1,BBMP Group D Jobs,1,BCECE 2024,1,Beautician Courses,1,Bed,1,Bed Admission,2,BEL Recruitment 2024,1,Best Formal Reply for Thank You,1,Best Reply For Thank You For Every Situation,1,Best Reply For Thank You To A Boy,1,Best Reply For Thank You To A Girl,1,Bharat Ratna to Lal Krishna Advani,1,BharatGPT Hanooman AI,1,Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita 2023,3,Bihar Bed,2,Bihar Bed CET Syllabus,1,Bihar Bed Entrance Exam,1,Bihar Bed Exam,1,Bihar Bed Exam Pattern,1,Bihar Bed syllabus,2,Bihar ITI CAT 2024,1,bilkis bano,1,Bilkis Bano case,1,bilkis bano case convicts,1,bilkis bano case news,1,bilkis bano gujarat,1,bilkis bano news,1,bilkis bano supreme court,1,Bills,2,Binoda Law College,1,Binoda Law College admission fees,1,Binoda Law College admission process,1,Binoda Law College eligibility,1,Binoda Law College seats,1,BioAsia Summit 2024,1,Biography,4,Blog writer job,1,Blogging,1,BNS,1,BOI Officer Recruitment 2024,1,BPSC,1,BPSC Agriculture Department Various Post Recruitment 2024,1,BPSC School Head teacher recruitment 2024,1,Brainware University,1,Brainware University llb fees,1,BSPHCL Recruitment 2024,1,Burdwan University,1,Burdwan University 3 Years LL.B Admission,1,Business,3,business tips,1,business without money,1,Byjus Online teaching job,2,caa,1,Calcutta University,3,Calcutta University BA LL.B admission,1,Calcutta University BA LLb,1,Calcutta University BA LLb exam pattern,1,Calcutta University BA LLb syllabus,1,Calcutta University BA LLB Total Seats,1,Career,8,Career in Law,3,career tips,1,Carrer,2,Cases Related to UCC,1,cash earning sites,1,CBSE 10th Syllabus,1,Central Govt Jobs,8,Central Govt Schemes,1,CG SET Exam,1,CG SET Exam date,1,CG SET Syllabus,2,CGPEB Hostel Superintendent Recruitment 2024,1,Chandigarh TGT Recruitment 2024,1,Chapter 1,1,Citizenship,1,Citizenship Amendment Act,1,Civil judge job,1,CJI D Y Chandrachud,1,CJI DY Chandrachud Highlighted Four Issues in Legal Profession,1,CLAT 2025,1,CLW Act Apprentice Recruitment,1,CMAT 2024,1,Combined Medical Services,1,common interview questions,1,Composition and Functions of the Supreme Court of India,1,Composition of Lok Adalat,1,Content Writer,4,Content Writer Job,3,Content Writing Jobs,4,Copy Paste Jobs,2,Copy Paste Jobs Without Investment,1,Courses,6,Cover Letter,1,Cover Letter for Freshers,1,Crimes,1,CTET July 2024,1,CTET Syllabus 2024,1,CUET UG 2024,1,Current Affairs,9,Cyber Cell of Police,1,daily earning website,1,Data Analyst,1,Data Analyst Interview Questions,1,Data Analyst Job,1,Data Analyst Job Qualifications and Skills,1,Data Analyst Jobs,1,Data Analytics Course,1,Data Entry Jobs,5,Data Entry Operator,1,Data Protection and Data Privacy Laws in India,1,data protection laws,1,Defence Jobs,1,Delhi University,2,difference,1,difference between a CV and a bio,1,Difference between Advocate Lawyer,1,Difference Between CV Resume and Bio Data,1,Difference Between I.P.C and Cr.PC,1,Difference between Judgment Decree and Order,1,Differences Between Democracy and Republic,1,Digital Marketing Courses,1,Digital Marketing Jobs,1,distance university llb,1,download online stamp paper,1,DPDP Act,1,DRDO Apprentice 2024,1,dropshipping business,1,DSSSB Delhi District Court Jobs in Delhi,1,DU LL.B Entrance Exam,1,DU LLB Entrance Exam Pattern,1,DY Chandrachud,1,e Stamp Paper,1,e-Stamp Paper download,1,e-Stamp Paper registration,1,earn money,2,earn money online,15,Earning Websites,2,Education,26,Electoral bonds,2,Engineering Jobs,11,English,1,English Skill,16,Entry Level Digital Marketing Jobs,1,Event Planner,1,Exam Schedule of UPSC,1,Exams,2,Explained Law,1,Fali S Nariman Quotes for Law Students,1,Fali Sam Nariman,1,Farewell Speech,1,Farmers Protest 2024,1,Fee Structure for Symbiosis Law School,1,female freedom fighters of india,1,FIR Quashing,1,fir quashing cases,1,fir quashing fees,1,fir quashing format,1,fir quashing grounds,1,fir quashing process,1,fir quashing section,1,Fiverr,1,Free Online Courses,1,Free Online Courses With Certificates,1,freedom fighters,1,Freedom of speech,1,Freelance Jobs,1,Freelance Websites for Beginners,1,Freelancing,1,Freelancing Sites,1,Fundamental Duties,1,Fundamental Rights of India,1,Gaganyaan Mission,1,Government Exams for Law Students,1,government law colleges,1,GPAT 2024,1,GPAT 2024 Exam Date,1,GPAT Exam Pattern,1,GPAT Syllabus,1,Graphic Designer Jobs,1,Gujarat Police Bharti 2024,1,Gujarat Police Bharti Constable Syllabus,1,gujarat riots bilkis bano,1,gun license,1,Gyanvapi case,1,Gyanvapi Mosque case,1,Habeas Corpus,1,Habeas Corpus case,1,Habeas Corpus Meaning,1,HAMA 1956,1,Handcuffing Case Laws,1,Handcuffing Judgments,1,Handcuffing Law in India,1,High Income Skills,1,High Income Skills without Degree,1,Hindi Blog,5,Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act 1956,1,Hindu Law,1,Hindu Law Notes,1,history,1,History of Indian Banks,1,History of UCC,1,How are you doing Reply,1,How are you doing reply formal,1,How are you doing responses,1,How Are You Reply,1,How Are You Reply To Boy,1,How Are You Reply To Friends,1,How Are You Reply To Girl,1,How Do You Do Reply,1,How do you do reply in chat to a girl,1,How Have You Been,1,How have you been answer,1,How have you been reply,1,how to,2,how to answer,1,How to become a Barrister in India,1,How to Become a Lawyer or Advocate,1,How to get a Gun License in India,1,How to improve legal drafting skills,1,how to introduce yourself in an interview,1,How To Introduce Yourself In English,1,How to Obtain Gun License In India,1,How To Procure A Gun In India,1,How to reply how are you doing,1,how to send legal notice,1,How To Start A Speech,1,How to write your skills on a Resume,1,How Was your Day Reply,1,HP LEET 2024,1,hp leet exam date,1,hp leet exam pattern,1,hp leet syllabus,1,HP PAT 2024,1,HPCL Engineering Professional 2024 Online Form,1,hr interview questions and answers,1,IB Recruitment 2024,1,IB Recruitment 2024 Eligibility,1,IB Recruitment 2024 Last date,1,IB Recruitment 2024 Vacancy,1,IGNOU,8,IGNOU Admission,1,IGNOU Assignment Front Page,1,IGNOU Assignment Status,1,IGNOU Distance MBA Admission,1,IGNOU Exam Form June 2024,1,IGNOU Exam Time Table June 2024,1,IGNOU Exams,1,IGNOU Front Page,1,IGNOU Hall Ticket,1,IGNOU Latest Updates,1,IISER Admission Important Dates,1,IISER Application Form 2024,1,IISER Entrance Exam 2024 Syllabus,1,improve english,1,Income Tax,5,Income Tax Return,5,Income Tax Slabs,1,Indian Army Recruitment,1,Indian Constitution,10,Indian Contract Act,3,Indian Contract Act 1872,2,Indian Contract Act Section 6,1,Indian Laws,24,Indian Railway Jobs,1,Indian Stamp Bill 2023,1,indian women,1,Injunction,1,Injunction Act in India,1,International Womens day 2024,1,International Womens day Theme 2024,1,interview,1,Interview Questions and Answers,2,ipc 377,1,IT Act,1,ITI Jobs,7,ITR 1,1,ITR Filing Last Date,1,Jacob Elordi,1,Jacob Elordi faces allegations of alleged assault in Australia,1,Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya Teacher Recruitment,1,JEE Main Syllabus,1,Jharkhand High Court Recruitment 2024,1,Jharkhand launches Widow Remarriage Incentive Scheme,1,JIPMAT 2024,1,JIS University,1,JIS University Law College,1,JIS University llb fees,1,Job interview,1,job interview questions and answers,1,Jobs in Bihar,4,Jobs in Chhattisgarh,1,Jobs in Gujarat,1,Jobs in Jharkhand,1,Jobs in Karnataka,1,Jobs in Kerala,1,Jobs in Madhya Pradesh,1,Jobs in Meghalaya,1,Jobs in Rajasthan,4,Jobs in Telangana,1,Jobs in Uttar Pradesh,2,Jobs in West Bengal,2,Join Indian Army,1,JRSET College of Law,1,jrset college of law admission,1,jrset college of law chakdaha nadia,1,jrset college of law contact no,1,jrset college of law courses,1,jrset college of law fees,1,Judgement on Electoral Bonds Scheme 2024,1,Judgments,10,Juice jacking,1,Jurisdiction of Supreme Court of India,1,Justice Indu Malhota,1,k8school,1,Kalyani University,1,KARTET 2024,1,KEAM 2024,1,kerala psc clerk,1,Kerala PSC Office Attendant,1,Kerala SET Exam,1,Kerala TET 2024,1,Kerala TET Exam,1,KPSC Group C Job,1,KPSC JE Recruitment,1,KPSC Recruitment 2024 Notification,1,KPSC Surveyor Recruitment 2024,1,KVS Admission 2024,1,Labour Law of India,2,Ladakh Protest,1,ladies freedom fighters of india,1,Lakhpati Didi Yojana,1,Lal Krishna Advani,1,Latest Government Jobs,76,Latest News,4,Latest Police Recruitment,1,Law Colleges,18,Law Notes,2,learn english,1,Legal Notice,1,Legitimacy To Child Born Outside Formal Marriage,1,Librarian Courses,1,List of bailable and non bailable offences,1,List of Chief Justice of India,1,List of the documents we should check before buying any land,1,LLB College in West Bengal,1,LLB Colleges in Bihar,1,llb for distance university graduates,1,LLB Jobs,4,Lok Adalat,1,Lok Adalat 2024,1,Lok Adalat scheduled,1,mah cet,1,MAH CET 3 years llb entrance,1,MAH CET apply online,1,mah cet law,1,MAH CET Law Entrance Exam cut off,1,MAH CET Law Entrance Exam Eligibility,1,MAH CET Law Entrance Exam pattern,1,MAH CET Law Entrance Exam syllabus,1,MAH CET LLB 2024,1,Mahtari Vandana Yojanaa,1,make money,2,make money ideas,2,make money online,8,Maneka Gandhi v Union of India 1978,1,Maryam Nawaz Biography,1,Mast App,1,Mast App Download,1,MBA Jobs,1,Meaning of How Are You Doing,1,Medical courses,1,medical courses after 12th,1,Medical Courses Without NEET,1,Medical Exams,1,Meghalaya Police Recruitment 2024,1,MH CET 2024,1,MIES RM Law College 3 Years LLB Admission,1,MIES RM Law College eligibility,1,MIES RM Law College fees,1,MIES RM Law College review,1,Minimum Support Price MSP,1,Minimum Wages Act 1948,1,money earning sites,2,money earning websites,1,Most Common Reply For Thanks,1,Motivational Quotes,1,Motivational Quotes for Students,1,MPSET Exam 2024,1,MPSET Exam Syllabus and MPSET Exam Pattern,1,MrBeast,1,MSP Law,1,nalsa,1,National Science Day 2024,1,Nationalization of Banks in India,1,Naval Dockyard Mumbai Apprentice Online Form 2024,1,Navtej Singh Johar v UOI,1,NCET 2024,1,neet exam,1,NEET PG 2024,1,New Hit and Run Law,1,Non Bailable Warrant,1,NPCIL Executive Trainee Recruitment,1,NUHM Hooghly Recruitment 2024,1,NVS Recruitment 2024,1,Offences Relating to Marriage,1,OICL AO Recruitment 2024,1,One Nation One Election,1,Online Business in India,1,Online Coding Teacher,1,Online Complaint Procedure,1,Online Courses,1,Online Courses With Certificates,1,Online Data Entry Jobs From Home,3,online earning platform,1,Online Earning Websites,1,online job,1,online jobs,64,Online Jobs For Students,1,Online Jobs From Home,3,Online Jobs without Investment,1,Online Teacher Jobs,3,Online Teaching Job,2,Online Teaching Job at BYJUS,1,Online Teaching Jobs,14,online tutor,2,Online Typing Jobs,2,Online Typing Jobs from Home,2,OSSC CHSL Recruitment,1,Parliament,1,Part time jobs,11,Part Time Online Teaching Jobs From Home,2,Patanjali,1,Patna Law College,1,Patna Law College admission,1,Patna Law College eligibility,1,Patna Law College llb admission,1,Patna Law College llb exam pattern,1,Patna Law College llb syllabus,1,Patna University,1,Patna University academic calendar 2024,1,PCPNDT Act1994,1,Personal Freedom Social justice,1,personality development,1,Physics Wallah,1,PlanetSpark,1,PM Modi,1,PM Modi Yojnaa,2,PM Vishwakarma Yojana,1,Police Jobs,5,Pradhan Mantri Aawas Yojana,1,Prenuptial Agreement in India,1,preply,1,PREVENTION OF UNFAIR MEANS BILL 2024,1,Print e Stamp Paper Online,1,Privacy and Data Protection Law in India,1,Privacy Laws in India,1,Prohibition of Sex Selection,1,Proofreader Jobs,1,proofreading jobs,3,PSC,1,PSC Jobs,1,PSSSB JE Recruitment 2024 Apply Online,1,Pune,1,Punjab Police Constable Syllabus,1,Punjab Police Recruitment 2024,1,pw,1,Question Papers,1,Quotes,1,Railway Apprentice 2024,1,Railway Group D Recruitment 2024,1,Railway jobs,7,Railway Recruitment 2024,1,Rajasthan APO Previous Year Paper,1,Rajasthan APO Salary 2024,1,Rajasthan APO Syllabus 2024,1,Rajasthan Civil Judge Recruitment,1,Rajasthan Pre DElEd Notification,1,Rajasthan PTET 2024,1,Rajasthan RPSC Public Relation Officer PRO Recruitment 2024,1,Rajasthan Safai Karamchari Recruitment 2024,1,Refer and Earn Apps,1,Register Cyber Crime Complaint,1,remote jobs,18,Right of Private Defence Under BNS 2023,1,Right to privacy,1,Right to privacy cases,1,Right to privacy gdpr,1,Right to privacy in india,1,Right to privacy law,1,Right To Property,1,RPF Constable Syllabus 2024,1,RPF SI Recruitment 2024,1,RPSC agriculture officer recruitment 2024,1,RPSC APO Vacancy 2024,1,RPSC PTI and Librarian Recruitment 2024,1,rrb alp,1,rrb alp 2024 job,1,rrb alp recruitment,1,RRB RPF Constable Recruitment 2024,1,RRB Technician Recruitment 2024,1,RRC Group D Recruitment,1,RSMSSB Junior Instructor Recruitment 2024,1,RSMSSB Rajasthan Stenographer Recruitment 2024,1,Salary,2,Sarkari Job,3,Sarkari Result,2,Sarkari Yojnaa,4,Sarsuna Law College,1,Sarsuna Law College courses,1,Sarsuna Law College fees,1,Sarsuna Law College location,1,Satish Ragde vs State of Maharashtra,1,Section 10 of Indian Contract Act explanation,1,Section 11 of Indian Contract Act,1,Section 138 of Negotiable Instruments Act,1,Section 2 of Indian Contact Act 1872,1,Section 6,1,sell online,1,Selvi vs State of Karnataka Case,1,SET Exams,1,Sexual Offence and Assault Against Woman and Child,1,Shabnam vs. State of Uttar Pradesh,1,Shyambazar Law College,1,Side Hustle Ideas,1,Simplilearn,1,SKAIL,1,Slat exam,1,Snehangshu Kanta Acharya Institute of Law fees,1,Snehangshu Kanta Acharya Institute of Law SKAIL,1,South East Central Railway Act Apprentice Recruitment,1,South East Central Railway Apprentice Online Form,1,South East Central Railway Trade Apprentice 2024 Online Form,1,spoken english,1,SSC,4,SSC CGL 2024,1,SSC CHSL 2024,1,SSC CHSL Syllabus and Exam Pattern,1,SSC CPO 2024,1,SSC JE 2024,1,SSC JE Salary 2024,1,SSC JE Syllabus and Exam Pattern,1,SSC Jobs,3,SSC Junior Engineer Recruitment 2024,1,SSC Selection Post 12 Recruitment,1,Stay Order,1,Stay order definition,1,Stay order time limit,1,Stay order vs Injunction,1,Step by Step Procedures to File a Cyber Crime Complaint,1,Sudha Murty Nominated To Rajya Sabha,1,Suo Moto,1,Suo Moto in Indian Law,1,Supreme Court,1,Supreme Court 75th Anniversary,1,Supreme Court Building Fund Allocation,1,Surendranath Law College,1,Surendranath Law College Admission,1,Surendranath Law College Fees,1,Surrogacy in India,1,Survey Sites,1,Syllabus,15,Symbiosis Law Admission Test 2024,1,Symbiosis Law Admission Test Eligibility,1,Symbiosis Law School,1,Take Care Reply,1,Tax,6,tcs career,1,tcs entru level jobs,1,TCS Jobs for Freshers,1,Teaching Jobs,14,Technology,1,Telangana High Court Recruitment,1,Telecom Bill 2023,1,Tell me about yourself,1,tell me about yourself answer,1,tell me about yourself examples,1,tell me about yourself interview,1,tell me about yourself sample answers,1,tell me something about yourself,1,Tezpur Government Law College,1,The Digital Personal Data Protection Bill 2023,1,The Kesavananda Bharti case,1,The Places of Worship act,1,The Places of Worship Special Provisions Act 1991,1,The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act 2006,1,THE PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS BILL 2024,1,Tips of Legal Drafting,1,TN TRB Assistant Professor Recruitment 2024,1,TNPSC CCSE Recruitment,1,TNSET 2024,1,top 10,1,top 10 freedom fighters of india,1,Top 11 Law Colleges in India without CLAT,1,TS LAWCET 2024,1,ts lawcet exam date,1,Ts lawcet exam pattern,1,ts lawcet last date,1,ts lawcet syllabus,1,TS LPCET 2024,1,Types of bail,1,Types of ITR Forms,1,Types of Writs,1,Typing Jobs,3,UCC,1,ugc net,1,ugc net 2024,1,ugc net age limit,1,ugc net eligibility,1,UGC NET Exam,1,ugc net exam date,1,ugc net exam pattern,1,ugc net full form,1,ugc net syllabus,1,Unacademy,1,Uniform Civil Code,1,Uniform Civil Code in Goa,1,University,3,University Law College Utkal University,1,UP HJS Recruitment 2024,1,Upcoming Bank Jobs,1,Upcoming Railway Vacancy,1,UPMRC Recruitment 2024,1,UPPSC Agriculture Services,1,UPSC Calendar 2025,1,UPSC CMS 2024,1,UPSC CMS Exam Pattern,1,UPSC CMS Salary,1,UPSC CMS Syllabus,2,UPSC IES ISS 2024,1,UPSC IES ISS Syllabus,1,UPSC Jobs,2,UPSSSC JE Recruitment 2024,1,UPSSSC Junior Analyst Recruitment 2024,1,Uttarakhand Cooperative Bank Recruitment 2024,1,Uttarakhand UCC,1,Uttarakhand Uniform Civil Code,1,Uttarakhand Uniform Civil Code Bill 2024,1,Uttarakhand’s Uniform Civil Code (UCC) Bill,1,Vakalatnama,1,Vakalatnama Fees,1,Vakalatnama Format,1,Vakalatnama Rules,1,Vishnu Rambhhaji Harishchandre vs Bar Council Of India case,1,Void and Voidable Marriage in Hindu Law,1,Wapcos,1,WAPCOS Recruitment,1,Watch Video and Earn Money,1,WB JECA 2024,1,WB JECA Exam Date,1,WB JECA Registration,1,WB JECA Syllabus,1,WB Police Constable Recruitment 2024,2,WB police sub inspector recruitment 2024,1,West Bengal ITI,1,wfh,2,What do you do reply for college students,1,what is bilkis bano case,1,what is caa,1,What is freelancing,1,What is ITR,1,What is legal notice,1,Which ITR Should I File,1,Women Freedom Fighters of India,1,Women Reservation Bill,1,WordPress Developer,1,work from home,6,Work From Home Jobs,21,writer job,1,Writs,2,
ltr
item
Barristery.in: The Right to Privacy - Article 21, Cases, Acts, GDPR etc.
The Right to Privacy - Article 21, Cases, Acts, GDPR etc.
The right to privacy is internationally recognized as a fundamental human right, enshrined in various global and regional human rights instruments.
https://blogger.googleusercontent.com/img/b/R29vZ2xl/AVvXsEjirg_d3VzyVnVknLEjtMWvh14-tRfTZ8rTy92r44ERH1B294dChbCMcrH_DCNczAk2JMlDIHwPM3s2ooXpe19g-JQ01OJXiCqQF40HPDnG6FCJLWg62HNeBnime3CVNRGvODITfqox01mmIXWipPNREdYnY0BcVUdvvc-v53sa3Q_v0bne-JjI4fJw/s16000/How%20to%20Answer%20%E2%80%9CTell%20Me%20About%20Yourself%E2%80%9D%20(17).png
https://blogger.googleusercontent.com/img/b/R29vZ2xl/AVvXsEjirg_d3VzyVnVknLEjtMWvh14-tRfTZ8rTy92r44ERH1B294dChbCMcrH_DCNczAk2JMlDIHwPM3s2ooXpe19g-JQ01OJXiCqQF40HPDnG6FCJLWg62HNeBnime3CVNRGvODITfqox01mmIXWipPNREdYnY0BcVUdvvc-v53sa3Q_v0bne-JjI4fJw/s72-c/How%20to%20Answer%20%E2%80%9CTell%20Me%20About%20Yourself%E2%80%9D%20(17).png
Barristery.in
https://www.barristery.in/2024/02/the-right-to-privacy-article-21-cases.html
https://www.barristery.in/
https://www.barristery.in/
https://www.barristery.in/2024/02/the-right-to-privacy-article-21-cases.html
true
8524615770953786617
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content