What is the Basic Structure Doctrine ? - Explained

SHARE:

Basic Structure Doctrine

According to the Judgment of the Supreme Court, the Basic Structure Doctrine is a part of the Constitution and the Parliament cannot tamper with it in any way. The basic Structure Theory of the Constitution was a remarkable decision given by the Supreme Court during the Kesavananda Bharati Case.

The Basic Structure Doctrine has been a cornerstone of constitutional interpretation in India, serving as a check on the powers of the Parliament to ensure that fundamental changes to the Constitution respect the original intentions and overarching principles upon which the Constitution was founded. It has been invoked in various landmark judgments following the Kesavananda Bharati case to review and sometimes strike down constitutional amendments and legislation that were found to violate the basic structure of the Constitution.

The Basic Structure Doctrine is a principle established by the Supreme Court of India that upholds the supremacy of the Constitution and identifies certain fundamental features of the Constitution that cannot be altered or destroyed through constitutional amendments.

What is the Basic Structure Doctrine ? - Explained

What is the Basic Structure Doctrine?

The Basic Structure Doctrine is a judicial principle in Indian constitutional law that the Constitution of India has certain basic features that cannot be altered or destroyed through amendments by the Parliament. This doctrine ensures the permanence and sanctity of the core principles and underlying framework of the Constitution, safeguarding its spirit.

The doctrine was first established in the landmark judgment of Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala in 1973 by the Supreme Court of India. In this case, the Supreme Court ruled that while the Parliament has wide powers to amend the Constitution under Article 368, these powers do not extend to altering the basic structure of the Constitution.

The basic structure includes, but is not limited to, the supremacy of the Constitution, the rule of law, the principle of separation of powers, the objectives specified in the Preamble to the Constitution (such as Justice, Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity), the federal character of the Constitution, the unity and sovereignty of India, the secular nature of the Indian state, the democratic character of the polity, and the welfare state (i.e., socio-economic justice).

Components of the Basic Structure Doctrine

The Supreme Court has not provided an exhaustive list of what constitutes the basic structure, allowing for flexibility and interpretation as per the needs of the times. However, through various judgments, several features have been identified as part of the basic structure, including:

  • Supremacy of the Constitution
  • Rule of Law
  • Independence of the Judiciary
  • Doctrine of Separation of Powers
  • Federal Character of the Constitution
  • Secularism
  • Sovereign, Democratic, and Republic nature of the Indian polity
  • Individual freedom and dignity
  • Mandate to build a welfare state

Development of the Basic Structure Doctrine

The development of the Basic Structure Doctrine in Indian constitutional law marks a significant evolution in the judicial oversight over the powers of the Parliament to amend the Constitution. This doctrine emerged out of a series of judicial decisions, culminating in the landmark Kesavananda Bharati case. Here is a chronological overview of how the doctrine developed:

Shankari Prasad v. Union of India (1951): This was the first case that challenged the power of the Parliament to amend the Constitution, particularly the Fundamental Rights. The Supreme Court held that the Parliament could amend any part of the Constitution, including the Fundamental Rights, under Article 368.

Sajjan Singh v. State of Rajasthan (1965): The Supreme Court reiterated its position from Shankari Prasad, affirming the Parliament's power to amend the Constitution, including Fundamental Rights.

I.C. Golaknath v. State of Punjab (1967): Marking a significant shift, the Supreme Court ruled that the Parliament could not amend the Fundamental Rights. The decision was that the Constitution conferred a fundamental immutability to the rights enshrined in Part III, beyond the amending power of the Parliament under Article 368.

The Kesavananda Bharati Case (1973): The contradictions and tensions between the Parliament's power to amend the Constitution and the immutability of Fundamental Rights led to the landmark judgment in Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala. The case was heard by the largest ever Constitution Bench of 13 judges. The core issue was whether the Parliament's amendment power was unlimited, or if there were inherent limitations to it.

The Supreme Court, in a 7-6 decision, introduced the Basic Structure Doctrine, ruling that while the Parliament had wide powers to amend the Constitution, this power did not extend to altering the "basic structure" of the Constitution. However, the Court did not provide a comprehensive list of what constituted the Constitution's basic structure, leaving it to be determined on a case-by-case basis in future jurisprudence.

Read: Case of Keshavananda Bharati vs State of Kerala

Indira Nehru Gandhi v. Raj Narain (1975): This case reinforced the Basic Structure Doctrine when the Supreme Court invalidated the 39th Amendment Act, which sought to place the election of the Prime Minister beyond judicial review. The Court held that such a change affected the basic feature of democracy, and hence was void.

Minerva Mills v. Union of India (1980): This case further solidified the Basic Structure Doctrine. The Supreme Court struck down parts of the 42nd Amendment Act, which sought to give primacy to Directive Principles over Fundamental Rights and also aimed to limit judicial review. The Court held that a balance between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles is an essential feature of the basic structure of the Constitution.

The development of the Basic Structure Doctrine represents a critical juncture in Indian constitutional law, balancing the need for constitutional evolution with the preservation of its core principles. It highlights the judiciary's role in maintaining the sanctity of the Constitution against potential excesses by the legislative and executive branches of the government.

Implications of the Basic Structure Doctrine

The Basic Structure Doctrine has profound implications for Indian constitutional law and the balance of power between the Judiciary and the Parliament. Its introduction and application have significantly shaped the dynamics of constitutional amendments and the protection of fundamental constitutional principles. Some key implications of the doctrine are:

1. Limitation on Parliamentary Power:

The most direct implication of the Basic Structure Doctrine is the limitation it places on the Parliament's power to amend the Constitution. While the Parliament retains the ability to make significant changes and adaptations to the Constitution, it cannot alter the fundamental framework or core principles that form the Constitution's basic structure. This ensures that the essential features of the Constitution, such as democracy, rule of law, secularism, and federalism, remain intact and inviolable.

2. Judicial Review Strengthened:

The doctrine significantly empowers the judiciary, particularly the Supreme Court of India, by granting it the authority to review and invalidate constitutional amendments that violate the basic structure. This role of judicial review acts as a check on the powers of the Parliament, ensuring that any attempt to alter the Constitution's core values can be challenged and scrutinized in the judiciary.

3. Protection of Fundamental Rights:

By establishing that certain principles, including some fundamental rights, are beyond the amending power of the Parliament, the Basic Structure Doctrine provides a robust mechanism for the protection of individual rights and liberties. It ensures that fundamental rights, which are a crucial component of the basic structure, cannot be abrogated or diluted by constitutional amendments.

4. Balancing Flexibility and Rigidity:

The doctrine strikes a delicate balance between allowing for necessary constitutional changes and adaptations (flexibility) and preserving the core values and principles of the Constitution (rigidity). This balance is crucial for the evolution of the legal system in response to changing societal needs while maintaining the integrity and identity of the Constitution.

5. Encourages Constitutional Morality:

The Basic Structure Doctrine underlines the importance of constitutional morality, emphasizing the principles of justice, fairness, and equality enshrined in the Constitution. It serves as a reminder to both the judiciary and the legislature to uphold these values in their functions, ensuring that the spirit of the Constitution guides governance and law-making.

6. Dynamic Interpretation of the Constitution:

The doctrine allows for a dynamic interpretation of the Constitution, acknowledging that the understanding of what constitutes the basic structure can evolve over time. This flexibility ensures that the Constitution can adapt to new challenges and changes in societal values, without compromising its foundational principles.

In summary, the Basic Structure Doctrine plays a pivotal role in safeguarding the integrity of the Indian Constitution, ensuring that its core principles are upheld while allowing for necessary adaptations and evolution. It exemplifies the balance between judicial oversight and legislative power, contributing to the resilience and dynamism of Indian democracy.

Criticism and Debate over Basic Structure Doctrine

The Basic Structure Doctrine, while widely regarded as a cornerstone of constitutional law in India, has not been without its critics and points of debate. The doctrine's implications for democratic governance, judicial authority, and constitutional amendment powers have sparked discussions and controversies. Some of the main criticisms and areas of debate surrounding the Basic Structure Doctrine:

1. Judicial Overreach:

One of the most prominent criticisms is that the doctrine leads to judicial overreach. Critics argue that by granting the judiciary the power to determine the constitutionality of constitutional amendments, the doctrine excessively expands judicial authority. This, they claim, infringes upon the principle of separation of powers by allowing the judiciary to have the final say in matters that should be within the purview of the legislative process, potentially undermining the democratic mandate of the elected legislature.

2. Lack of Constitutional Basis:

Critics also contend that the Basic Structure Doctrine lacks a clear constitutional basis, as the Constitution of India does not explicitly mention or allude to a "basic structure" that is inviolable. They argue that the doctrine was judicially invented and imposes an extra-constitutional limitation on the amending powers of the Parliament, which was not envisioned by the framers of the Constitution.

3. Vagueness and Subjectivity:

The doctrine has been criticized for its inherent vagueness and the subjectivity involved in determining what constitutes the "basic structure" of the Constitution. Since the Supreme Court did not provide an exhaustive list of features that form the basic structure, it leaves much to judicial interpretation. Critics argue that this vagueness can lead to inconsistency in judicial decisions and grants excessive discretionary power to judges, potentially leading to arbitrary rulings.

4. Impact on Constitutional Evolution:

Some argue that the Basic Structure Doctrine impedes the evolutionary potential of the Constitution by placing undue restrictions on constitutional amendments. They contend that societal progress and changing circumstances may necessitate significant constitutional reforms, which could be hampered by the judiciary's power to invalidate amendments deemed to violate the basic structure.

5. Democratic Principle Concerns:

The doctrine raises concerns about the democratic principle, particularly the supremacy of the people's will as expressed through their elected representatives. Critics assert that by allowing unelected judges to have the final word on the constitutionality of amendments passed by the democratically elected Parliament, the doctrine may contravene the principle of democratic governance.

Debate and Support:

Despite these criticisms, the Basic Structure Doctrine has also received considerable support. Proponents argue that it serves as a crucial safeguard against majoritarian excesses and the erosion of fundamental rights and democratic principles. It is seen as a necessary check on the powers of the Parliament to prevent arbitrary amendments that could alter the very essence of the Constitution and the democratic fabric of the nation.

The doctrine continues to be a subject of legal, academic, and political debate, reflecting broader discussions about the balance between flexibility and rigidity in constitutional design, the role of the judiciary in democratic societies, and the mechanisms needed to protect constitutional democracy.

Landmark Judgments on Basic Structure Doctrine

The Basic Structure Doctrine has been central to several landmark judgments by the Supreme Court of India. These cases not only established and affirmed the doctrine but also expanded its interpretation and application over the years. Here are some of the landmark judgments related to the Basic Structure Doctrine:

1. Kesavananda Bharati vs. State of Kerala (1973)

This is the foundational case where the Basic Structure Doctrine was first articulated. The Supreme Court held that while the Parliament has wide powers to amend the Constitution, it cannot alter the basic structure or framework of the Constitution. This case set the precedent for the doctrine, although the court did not provide a comprehensive list of what constitutes the basic structure.

2. Indira Nehru Gandhi vs. Raj Narain (1975)

In this case, the Supreme Court applied the Basic Structure Doctrine to strike down the 39th Amendment Act, which sought to validate the election of the Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi, which had been declared void by the Allahabad High Court. The Court held that certain amendments made by the 39th Amendment were unconstitutional as they violated the basic structure, particularly the principle of free and fair elections.

3. Minerva Mills vs. Union of India (1980)

The Supreme Court further reinforced the Basic Structure Doctrine in the Minerva Mills case. It declared that two changes made by the 42nd Amendment Act were unconstitutional: one that gave primacy to the Directive Principles of State Policy over the Fundamental Rights, and another that limited the judicial review power of the courts. The Court affirmed that any law or amendment which impairs the harmony and balance between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles or restricts judicial review could damage the basic structure.

4. Waman Rao vs. Union of India (1981)

This case dealt with the validity of the Constitution (Amendment) Acts passed between April 24, 1973 (the date of the Kesavananda Bharati judgment), and June 30, 1981. The Supreme Court held that the acts and amendments which came into force after the Kesavananda Bharati decision would be subject to scrutiny according to the Basic Structure Doctrine, thereby upholding the doctrine's retrospective application only from the date of the Kesavananda Bharati judgment.

5. S.R. Bommai vs. Union of India (1994)

This case is primarily known for its examination of the President's rule under Article 356 of the Constitution. The Supreme Court held that the power of the President to dismiss a state government is not absolute and is subject to judicial review. The court asserted that federalism is a part of the basic structure of the Constitution, and any action impacting it would be scrutinized to ensure it does not violate this essential feature.

6. M. Nagaraj & Others vs. Union of India & Others (2006)

In this case, the Supreme Court was dealing with the validity of the 77th, 81st, 82nd, and 85th Constitutional Amendments, all related to reservations in promotions for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. The Court upheld the amendments but stated that the principle of equality is a basic feature of the Constitution. It held that any law made under these amendments giving effect to reservation should not obliterate the principle of equality.

7. I.R. Coelho (Dead) By LRs vs. State of Tamil Nadu (2007)

This case is significant for reaffirming the applicability of the Basic Structure Doctrine to laws placed in the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution. The Court held that even the laws under the Ninth Schedule would be open to judicial review if they were found to be violative of the basic structure or essential features of the Constitution.

8. Indian Young Lawyers Association vs. The State of Kerala (2018)

In this case, commonly known as the Sabarimala case, the Supreme Court allowed women of all ages to enter the Sabarimala temple, striking down the temple's rule that banned women of menstruating age. The Court held that the practice violated women's right to equality under Article 14, the right to freedom of religion under Article 25, and amounted to gender discrimination, reaffirming that gender justice is an inseparable part of the basic structure.

These landmark judgments underscore the Supreme Court's role in interpreting and safeguarding the Constitution through the Basic Structure Doctrine. They highlight the dynamic tension between the powers of the legislature to amend the Constitution and the judiciary's role in ensuring that such amendments do not erode the Constitution's fundamental values and principles.

Conclusion

The Basic Structure Doctrine places limitations on the power of Parliament to amend the Constitution. It implies that Parliament cannot amend the Constitution in a manner that destroys or eliminates the basic structure of the Constitution.

The Basic Structure Doctrine empowers the judiciary, particularly the Supreme Court, to review and strike down constitutional amendments that violate the basic structure of the Constitution. The court acts as the guardian of the Constitution and ensures that the basic structure is preserved.

The concept of the Basic Structure Doctrine has evolved over time through various court judgments. The Supreme Court has expanded and clarified the scope of the doctrine in subsequent cases.

It's important to note that the exact scope and interpretation of the Basic Structure Doctrine may vary on a case-by-case basis, and the Supreme Court has the final authority to determine what constitutes the basic structure of the Constitution.

Also Read: Types of Writs under the Constitution of India

COMMENTS

Name

10th Pass Govt Job,7,125 crpc,1,12th Paas Jobs,3,138 Ni Act,1,2024 National Lok Adalat Schedule,1,3 Years LL.B Colleges in West Bengal,1,3 Years LLB Course in India,1,3 Years LLB Course in Kalyani University,1,3 Years LLB Govt Colleges in India,1,3D Designer,1,4 year bed course,1,AAI Junior Executive Recruitment 2024,1,Acts,15,Admission,43,Agniveer,1,AIAPGET 2024,1,AIBE Exam,1,Aibe exam language,1,Aibe exam pattern,1,Aibe exam syllabus,1,Air Force Agniveer,1,aligarh muslim university case,1,aligarh muslim university issue,1,Aligarh Muslim University Minority Status Case,1,aligarh muslim university minority status case analysis,1,All Indian Government Exams after Graduation,1,amazon,1,Amazon Jobs,1,amazon seller,1,Amazon Work From Home Jobs For Freshers,1,Amex Law College,1,Amex Law College Fees,1,AP Ed CET 2024,1,AP PGCET 2024,1,AP PGECET 2024,1,APLAWCET/ APPGLCET 2024,1,application form for gun license,1,Apprentice,6,Are CV resume and bio data the same,1,Arms,1,Arms Act 1959,1,Arms Rules,1,Army Jobs,1,Article 21,1,Ashneer Grover Net Worth,1,Bail in bailable offences,1,Bail in non-bailable offences,1,Bailable and Non Bailable Offences,1,Balfour v Balfour Case,1,Bank Job Vacancy 2024,2,Bank Jobs,4,Bankura District Court Recruitment,1,Basic Structure Doctrine,1,BBMP Group D Jobs,1,BCECE 2024,1,Beautician Courses,1,Bed,1,Bed Admission,2,BEL Recruitment 2024,1,Best Formal Reply for Thank You,1,Best Reply For Thank You For Every Situation,1,Best Reply For Thank You To A Boy,1,Best Reply For Thank You To A Girl,1,Bharat Ratna to Lal Krishna Advani,1,BharatGPT Hanooman AI,1,Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita 2023,3,Bihar Bed,2,Bihar Bed CET Syllabus,1,Bihar Bed Entrance Exam,1,Bihar Bed Exam,1,Bihar Bed Exam Pattern,1,Bihar Bed syllabus,2,Bihar ITI CAT 2024,1,bilkis bano,1,Bilkis Bano case,1,bilkis bano case convicts,1,bilkis bano case news,1,bilkis bano gujarat,1,bilkis bano news,1,bilkis bano supreme court,1,Bills,2,Binoda Law College,1,Binoda Law College admission fees,1,Binoda Law College admission process,1,Binoda Law College eligibility,1,Binoda Law College seats,1,BioAsia Summit 2024,1,Biography,4,Blog writer job,1,Blogging,1,BNS,1,BOI Officer Recruitment 2024,1,BPSC,1,BPSC Agriculture Department Various Post Recruitment 2024,1,BPSC School Head teacher recruitment 2024,1,Brainware University,1,Brainware University llb fees,1,BSPHCL Recruitment 2024,1,Burdwan University,1,Burdwan University 3 Years LL.B Admission,1,Business,3,business tips,1,business without money,1,Byjus Online teaching job,2,caa,1,Calcutta University,3,Calcutta University BA LL.B admission,1,Calcutta University BA LLb,1,Calcutta University BA LLb exam pattern,1,Calcutta University BA LLb syllabus,1,Calcutta University BA LLB Total Seats,1,Career,8,Career in Law,3,career tips,1,Carrer,2,Cases Related to UCC,1,cash earning sites,1,CBSE 10th Syllabus,1,Central Govt Jobs,8,Central Govt Schemes,1,CG SET Exam,1,CG SET Exam date,1,CG SET Syllabus,2,CGPEB Hostel Superintendent Recruitment 2024,1,Chandigarh TGT Recruitment 2024,1,Chapter 1,1,Citizenship,1,Citizenship Amendment Act,1,Civil judge job,1,CJI D Y Chandrachud,1,CJI DY Chandrachud Highlighted Four Issues in Legal Profession,1,CLAT 2025,1,CLW Act Apprentice Recruitment,1,CMAT 2024,1,Combined Medical Services,1,common interview questions,1,Composition and Functions of the Supreme Court of India,1,Composition of Lok Adalat,1,Content Writer,4,Content Writer Job,3,Content Writing Jobs,4,Copy Paste Jobs,2,Copy Paste Jobs Without Investment,1,Courses,6,Cover Letter,1,Cover Letter for Freshers,1,Crimes,1,CTET July 2024,1,CTET Syllabus 2024,1,CUET UG 2024,1,Current Affairs,9,Cyber Cell of Police,1,daily earning website,1,Data Analyst,1,Data Analyst Interview Questions,1,Data Analyst Job,1,Data Analyst Job Qualifications and Skills,1,Data Analyst Jobs,1,Data Analytics Course,1,Data Entry Jobs,5,Data Entry Operator,1,Data Protection and Data Privacy Laws in India,1,data protection laws,1,Defence Jobs,1,Delhi University,2,difference,1,difference between a CV and a bio,1,Difference between Advocate Lawyer,1,Difference Between CV Resume and Bio Data,1,Difference Between I.P.C and Cr.PC,1,Difference between Judgment Decree and Order,1,Differences Between Democracy and Republic,1,Digital Marketing Courses,1,Digital Marketing Jobs,1,distance university llb,1,download online stamp paper,1,DPDP Act,1,DRDO Apprentice 2024,1,dropshipping business,1,DSSSB Delhi District Court Jobs in Delhi,1,DU LL.B Entrance Exam,1,DU LLB Entrance Exam Pattern,1,DY Chandrachud,1,e Stamp Paper,1,e-Stamp Paper download,1,e-Stamp Paper registration,1,earn money,2,earn money online,12,Earning Websites,2,Education,26,Electoral bonds,2,Engineering Jobs,11,English,1,English Skill,15,Entry Level Digital Marketing Jobs,1,Event Planner,1,Exam Schedule of UPSC,1,Exams,2,Explained Law,1,Fali S Nariman Quotes for Law Students,1,Fali Sam Nariman,1,Farewell Speech,1,Farmers Protest 2024,1,Fee Structure for Symbiosis Law School,1,female freedom fighters of india,1,FIR Quashing,1,fir quashing cases,1,fir quashing fees,1,fir quashing format,1,fir quashing grounds,1,fir quashing process,1,fir quashing section,1,Free Online Courses,1,Free Online Courses With Certificates,1,freedom fighters,1,Freedom of speech,1,Freelance Jobs,1,Freelancing,1,Freelancing Sites,1,Fundamental Duties,1,Fundamental Rights of India,1,Gaganyaan Mission,1,Government Exams for Law Students,1,government law colleges,1,GPAT 2024,1,GPAT 2024 Exam Date,1,GPAT Exam Pattern,1,GPAT Syllabus,1,Graphic Designer Jobs,1,Gujarat Police Bharti 2024,1,Gujarat Police Bharti Constable Syllabus,1,gujarat riots bilkis bano,1,gun license,1,Gyanvapi case,1,Gyanvapi Mosque case,1,Habeas Corpus,1,Habeas Corpus case,1,Habeas Corpus Meaning,1,HAMA 1956,1,Handcuffing Case Laws,1,Handcuffing Judgments,1,Handcuffing Law in India,1,High Income Skills,1,High Income Skills without Degree,1,Hindi Blog,5,Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act 1956,1,Hindu Law,1,Hindu Law Notes,1,history,1,History of Indian Banks,1,History of UCC,1,How are you doing Reply,1,How are you doing reply formal,1,How are you doing responses,1,How Are You Reply,1,How Are You Reply To Boy,1,How Are You Reply To Friends,1,How Are You Reply To Girl,1,How Do You Do Reply,1,How do you do reply in chat to a girl,1,How Have You Been,1,How have you been answer,1,How have you been reply,1,how to,2,how to answer,1,How to become a Barrister in India,1,How to Become a Lawyer or Advocate,1,How to get a Gun License in India,1,How to improve legal drafting skills,1,how to introduce yourself in an interview,1,How To Introduce Yourself In English,1,How to Obtain Gun License In India,1,How To Procure A Gun In India,1,How to reply how are you doing,1,how to send legal notice,1,How To Start A Speech,1,How to write your skills on a Resume,1,How Was your Day Reply,1,HP LEET 2024,1,hp leet exam date,1,hp leet exam pattern,1,hp leet syllabus,1,HP PAT 2024,1,HPCL Engineering Professional 2024 Online Form,1,hr interview questions and answers,1,IB Recruitment 2024,1,IB Recruitment 2024 Eligibility,1,IB Recruitment 2024 Last date,1,IB Recruitment 2024 Vacancy,1,IGNOU,6,IGNOU Admission,1,IGNOU Assignment Front Page,1,IGNOU Assignment Status,1,IGNOU Distance MBA Admission,1,IGNOU Exam Form June 2024,1,IGNOU Exam Time Table June 2024,1,IGNOU Exams,1,IGNOU Front Page,1,IISER Admission Important Dates,1,IISER Application Form 2024,1,IISER Entrance Exam 2024 Syllabus,1,improve english,1,Income Tax,5,Income Tax Return,5,Income Tax Slabs,1,Indian Army Recruitment,1,Indian Constitution,10,Indian Contract Act,3,Indian Contract Act 1872,2,Indian Contract Act Section 6,1,Indian Laws,24,Indian Railway Jobs,1,Indian Stamp Bill 2023,1,indian women,1,Injunction,1,Injunction Act in India,1,International Womens day 2024,1,International Womens day Theme 2024,1,interview,1,Interview Questions and Answers,1,ipc 377,1,IT Act,1,ITI Jobs,7,ITR 1,1,ITR Filing Last Date,1,Jacob Elordi,1,Jacob Elordi faces allegations of alleged assault in Australia,1,Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya Teacher Recruitment,1,JEE Main Syllabus,1,Jharkhand High Court Recruitment 2024,1,Jharkhand launches Widow Remarriage Incentive Scheme,1,JIPMAT 2024,1,JIS University,1,JIS University Law College,1,JIS University llb fees,1,Job interview,1,job interview questions and answers,1,Jobs in Bihar,4,Jobs in Chhattisgarh,1,Jobs in Gujarat,1,Jobs in Jharkhand,1,Jobs in Karnataka,1,Jobs in Kerala,1,Jobs in Madhya Pradesh,1,Jobs in Meghalaya,1,Jobs in Rajasthan,4,Jobs in Telangana,1,Jobs in Uttar Pradesh,2,Jobs in West Bengal,2,Join Indian Army,1,JRSET College of Law,1,jrset college of law admission,1,jrset college of law chakdaha nadia,1,jrset college of law contact no,1,jrset college of law courses,1,jrset college of law fees,1,Judgement on Electoral Bonds Scheme 2024,1,Judgments,10,Juice jacking,1,Jurisdiction of Supreme Court of India,1,Justice Indu Malhota,1,k8school,1,Kalyani University,1,KARTET 2024,1,KEAM 2024,1,kerala psc clerk,1,Kerala PSC Office Attendant,1,Kerala SET Exam,1,Kerala TET 2024,1,Kerala TET Exam,1,KPSC Group C Job,1,KPSC JE Recruitment,1,KPSC Recruitment 2024 Notification,1,KPSC Surveyor Recruitment 2024,1,KVS Admission 2024,1,Labour Law of India,2,Ladakh Protest,1,ladies freedom fighters of india,1,Lakhpati Didi Yojana,1,Lal Krishna Advani,1,Latest Government Jobs,76,Latest News,4,Latest Police Recruitment,1,Law Colleges,17,Law Notes,2,learn english,1,Legal Notice,1,Legitimacy To Child Born Outside Formal Marriage,1,Librarian Courses,1,List of bailable and non bailable offences,1,List of Chief Justice of India,1,List of the documents we should check before buying any land,1,LLB College in West Bengal,1,llb for distance university graduates,1,LLB Jobs,4,Lok Adalat,1,Lok Adalat 2024,1,Lok Adalat scheduled,1,mah cet,1,MAH CET 3 years llb entrance,1,MAH CET apply online,1,mah cet law,1,MAH CET Law Entrance Exam cut off,1,MAH CET Law Entrance Exam Eligibility,1,MAH CET Law Entrance Exam pattern,1,MAH CET Law Entrance Exam syllabus,1,MAH CET LLB 2024,1,Mahtari Vandana Yojanaa,1,make money,2,make money ideas,2,make money online,5,Maneka Gandhi v Union of India 1978,1,Maryam Nawaz Biography,1,Mast App,1,Mast App Download,1,MBA Jobs,1,Meaning of How Are You Doing,1,Medical courses,1,medical courses after 12th,1,Medical Courses Without NEET,1,Medical Exams,1,Meghalaya Police Recruitment 2024,1,MH CET 2024,1,MIES RM Law College 3 Years LLB Admission,1,MIES RM Law College eligibility,1,MIES RM Law College fees,1,MIES RM Law College review,1,Minimum Support Price MSP,1,Minimum Wages Act 1948,1,money earning sites,1,money earning websites,1,Most Common Reply For Thanks,1,Motivational Quotes,1,Motivational Quotes for Students,1,MPSET Exam 2024,1,MPSET Exam Syllabus and MPSET Exam Pattern,1,MrBeast,1,MSP Law,1,nalsa,1,National Science Day 2024,1,Nationalization of Banks in India,1,Naval Dockyard Mumbai Apprentice Online Form 2024,1,Navtej Singh Johar v UOI,1,NCET 2024,1,neet exam,1,NEET PG 2024,1,New Hit and Run Law,1,Non Bailable Warrant,1,NPCIL Executive Trainee Recruitment,1,NUHM Hooghly Recruitment 2024,1,NVS Recruitment 2024,1,Offences Relating to Marriage,1,OICL AO Recruitment 2024,1,One Nation One Election,1,Online Business in India,1,Online Coding Teacher,1,Online Complaint Procedure,1,Online Courses,1,Online Courses With Certificates,1,Online Data Entry Jobs From Home,3,online earning platform,1,Online Earning Websites,1,online job,1,online jobs,58,Online Jobs For Students,1,Online Jobs From Home,2,Online Jobs without Investment,1,Online Teacher Jobs,3,Online Teaching Job,2,Online Teaching Job at BYJUS,1,Online Teaching Jobs,12,online tutor,2,Online Typing Jobs,2,Online Typing Jobs from Home,2,OSSC CHSL Recruitment,1,Parliament,1,Part time jobs,11,Part Time Online Teaching Jobs From Home,2,Patanjali,1,Patna Law College,1,Patna Law College admission,1,Patna Law College eligibility,1,Patna Law College llb admission,1,Patna Law College llb exam pattern,1,Patna Law College llb syllabus,1,Patna University,1,Patna University academic calendar 2024,1,PCPNDT Act1994,1,Personal Freedom Social justice,1,personality development,1,Physics Wallah,1,PlanetSpark,1,PM Modi,1,PM Modi Yojnaa,2,PM Vishwakarma Yojana,1,Police Jobs,5,Pradhan Mantri Aawas Yojana,1,Prenuptial Agreement in India,1,preply,1,PREVENTION OF UNFAIR MEANS BILL 2024,1,Print e Stamp Paper Online,1,Privacy and Data Protection Law in India,1,Privacy Laws in India,1,Prohibition of Sex Selection,1,Proofreader Jobs,1,proofreading jobs,3,PSC,1,PSC Jobs,1,PSSSB JE Recruitment 2024 Apply Online,1,Pune,1,Punjab Police Recruitment 2024,1,pw,1,Question Papers,1,Quotes,1,Railway Apprentice 2024,1,Railway Group D Recruitment 2024,1,Railway jobs,7,Railway Recruitment 2024,1,Rajasthan APO Previous Year Paper,1,Rajasthan APO Salary 2024,1,Rajasthan APO Syllabus 2024,1,Rajasthan Civil Judge Recruitment,1,Rajasthan Pre DElEd Notification,1,Rajasthan PTET 2024,1,Rajasthan RPSC Public Relation Officer PRO Recruitment 2024,1,Rajasthan Safai Karamchari Recruitment 2024,1,Refer and Earn Apps,1,Register Cyber Crime Complaint,1,remote jobs,18,Right of Private Defence Under BNS 2023,1,Right to privacy,1,Right to privacy cases,1,Right to privacy gdpr,1,Right to privacy in india,1,Right to privacy law,1,Right To Property,1,RPF Constable Syllabus 2024,1,RPF SI Recruitment 2024,1,RPSC agriculture officer recruitment 2024,1,RPSC APO Vacancy 2024,1,RPSC PTI and Librarian Recruitment 2024,1,rrb alp,1,rrb alp 2024 job,1,rrb alp recruitment,1,RRB RPF Constable Recruitment 2024,1,RRB Technician Recruitment 2024,1,RRC Group D Recruitment,1,RSMSSB Junior Instructor Recruitment 2024,1,RSMSSB Rajasthan Stenographer Recruitment 2024,1,Salary,2,Sarkari Job,3,Sarkari Result,2,Sarkari Yojnaa,4,Sarsuna Law College,1,Sarsuna Law College courses,1,Sarsuna Law College fees,1,Sarsuna Law College location,1,Satish Ragde vs State of Maharashtra,1,Section 10 of Indian Contract Act explanation,1,Section 11 of Indian Contract Act,1,Section 138 of Negotiable Instruments Act,1,Section 2 of Indian Contact Act 1872,1,Section 6,1,sell online,1,Selvi vs State of Karnataka Case,1,SET Exams,1,Sexual Offence and Assault Against Woman and Child,1,Shabnam vs. State of Uttar Pradesh,1,Shyambazar Law College,1,Side Hustle Ideas,1,Simplilearn,1,SKAIL,1,Slat exam,1,Snehangshu Kanta Acharya Institute of Law fees,1,Snehangshu Kanta Acharya Institute of Law SKAIL,1,South East Central Railway Act Apprentice Recruitment,1,South East Central Railway Apprentice Online Form,1,South East Central Railway Trade Apprentice 2024 Online Form,1,spoken english,1,SSC,4,SSC CGL 2024,1,SSC CHSL 2024,1,SSC CHSL Syllabus and Exam Pattern,1,SSC CPO 2024,1,SSC JE 2024,1,SSC JE Salary 2024,1,SSC JE Syllabus and Exam Pattern,1,SSC Jobs,3,SSC Junior Engineer Recruitment 2024,1,SSC Selection Post 12 Recruitment,1,Stay Order,1,Stay order definition,1,Stay order time limit,1,Stay order vs Injunction,1,Step by Step Procedures to File a Cyber Crime Complaint,1,Sudha Murty Nominated To Rajya Sabha,1,Suo Moto,1,Suo Moto in Indian Law,1,Supreme Court,1,Supreme Court 75th Anniversary,1,Supreme Court Building Fund Allocation,1,Surendranath Law College,1,Surendranath Law College Admission,1,Surendranath Law College Fees,1,Surrogacy in India,1,Survey Sites,1,Syllabus,14,Symbiosis Law Admission Test 2024,1,Symbiosis Law Admission Test Eligibility,1,Symbiosis Law School,1,Take Care Reply,1,Tax,6,tcs career,1,tcs entru level jobs,1,TCS Jobs for Freshers,1,Teaching Jobs,14,Technology,1,Telangana High Court Recruitment,1,Telecom Bill 2023,1,Tell me about yourself,1,tell me about yourself answer,1,tell me about yourself examples,1,tell me about yourself interview,1,tell me about yourself sample answers,1,tell me something about yourself,1,Tezpur Government Law College,1,The Digital Personal Data Protection Bill 2023,1,The Kesavananda Bharti case,1,The Places of Worship act,1,The Places of Worship Special Provisions Act 1991,1,The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act 2006,1,THE PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS BILL 2024,1,Tips of Legal Drafting,1,TN TRB Assistant Professor Recruitment 2024,1,TNPSC CCSE Recruitment,1,TNSET 2024,1,top 10,1,top 10 freedom fighters of india,1,Top 11 Law Colleges in India without CLAT,1,TS LAWCET 2024,1,ts lawcet exam date,1,Ts lawcet exam pattern,1,ts lawcet last date,1,ts lawcet syllabus,1,TS LPCET 2024,1,Types of bail,1,Types of ITR Forms,1,Types of Writs,1,Typing Jobs,3,UCC,1,ugc net,1,ugc net 2024,1,ugc net age limit,1,ugc net eligibility,1,UGC NET Exam,1,ugc net exam date,1,ugc net exam pattern,1,ugc net full form,1,ugc net syllabus,1,Unacademy,1,Uniform Civil Code,1,Uniform Civil Code in Goa,1,University,3,University Law College Utkal University,1,UP HJS Recruitment 2024,1,Upcoming Bank Jobs,1,Upcoming Railway Vacancy,1,UPMRC Recruitment 2024,1,UPPSC Agriculture Services,1,UPSC Calendar 2025,1,UPSC CMS 2024,1,UPSC CMS Exam Pattern,1,UPSC CMS Salary,1,UPSC CMS Syllabus,2,UPSC IES ISS 2024,1,UPSC IES ISS Syllabus,1,UPSC Jobs,2,UPSSSC JE Recruitment 2024,1,UPSSSC Junior Analyst Recruitment 2024,1,Uttarakhand Cooperative Bank Recruitment 2024,1,Uttarakhand UCC,1,Uttarakhand Uniform Civil Code,1,Uttarakhand Uniform Civil Code Bill 2024,1,Uttarakhand’s Uniform Civil Code (UCC) Bill,1,Vakalatnama,1,Vakalatnama Fees,1,Vakalatnama Format,1,Vakalatnama Rules,1,Vishnu Rambhhaji Harishchandre vs Bar Council Of India case,1,Void and Voidable Marriage in Hindu Law,1,Wapcos,1,WAPCOS Recruitment,1,Watch Video and Earn Money,1,WB JECA 2024,1,WB JECA Exam Date,1,WB JECA Registration,1,WB JECA Syllabus,1,WB Police Constable Recruitment 2024,2,WB police sub inspector recruitment 2024,1,West Bengal ITI,1,wfh,2,What do you do reply for college students,1,what is bilkis bano case,1,what is caa,1,What is freelancing,1,What is ITR,1,What is legal notice,1,Which ITR Should I File,1,Women Freedom Fighters of India,1,Women Reservation Bill,1,WordPress Developer,1,work from home,6,Work From Home Jobs,21,writer job,1,Writs,2,
ltr
item
Barristery.in: What is the Basic Structure Doctrine ? - Explained
What is the Basic Structure Doctrine ? - Explained
The Basic Structure Doctrine is a principle established by the Supreme Court of India that upholds the supremacy of the Constitution and identifies ce
https://blogger.googleusercontent.com/img/b/R29vZ2xl/AVvXsEgI6qehPBK_SPOITJp8HRKkPZY0cYXvS9kQTg2P3HFiwuwJu5-gUUM9rcxIVpyNpYILdru1ElhSQcJ3l1-i9Uk2b4eyZFp4NZgWxtwNhTGoLypVb7jKJbIl4d0hL4Dp2wKiLf6iwO5cRjmRS9ygkmE4cKexWMPz6t_5dWZ53Nsnha6erCn4QysmJX7T/s16000/How%20to%20Answer%20%E2%80%9CTell%20Me%20About%20Yourself%E2%80%9D%20(50).png
https://blogger.googleusercontent.com/img/b/R29vZ2xl/AVvXsEgI6qehPBK_SPOITJp8HRKkPZY0cYXvS9kQTg2P3HFiwuwJu5-gUUM9rcxIVpyNpYILdru1ElhSQcJ3l1-i9Uk2b4eyZFp4NZgWxtwNhTGoLypVb7jKJbIl4d0hL4Dp2wKiLf6iwO5cRjmRS9ygkmE4cKexWMPz6t_5dWZ53Nsnha6erCn4QysmJX7T/s72-c/How%20to%20Answer%20%E2%80%9CTell%20Me%20About%20Yourself%E2%80%9D%20(50).png
Barristery.in
https://www.barristery.in/2023/09/basic-structure-doctrine.html
https://www.barristery.in/
https://www.barristery.in/
https://www.barristery.in/2023/09/basic-structure-doctrine.html
true
8524615770953786617
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content