Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, 1978

SHARE:

Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, 1978

Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, 1978 is a landmark judgment by the Supreme Court of India that had a profound impact on the understanding and interpretation of the fundamental rights enshrined in the Constitution of India. The case arose when Maneka Gandhi, a journalist and daughter-in-law of then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, had her passport impounded by the Government of India in July 1977 under the Passport Act 1967. The government cited "public interest" as the reason but did not provide a detailed explanation. Maneka Gandhi challenged the government's action, arguing it was a violation of her fundamental rights, specifically her right to personal liberty under Article 21 of the Constitution, which states, "No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law."

Case Facts

The case of Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, 1978 revolved around a series of events and legal arguments that highlighted the intersection of individual rights and state authority under the Indian Constitution. Here are the case facts:

Maneka Gandhi's passport was issued on June 1, 1976. On July 2, 1977, the Regional Passport Officer, New Delhi, sent a letter to Maneka Gandhi informing her that her passport was being impounded under Section 10(3)(c) of the Passport Act, 1967, in the interest of the general public. She was asked to surrender her passport within seven days from the receipt of the letter.

The government did not provide any specific reasons for the impounding of the passport, citing only "public interest" as the rationale. Maneka Gandhi requested a copy of the statement of reasons for such an action but was informed that it was not in the public interest to furnish the reasons.

Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, 1978

Issues before the Court

In the landmark case of Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, 1978, several significant legal issues were presented before the Supreme Court of India. Maneka Gandhi filed a writ petition under Article 32 of the Constitution, challenging the order to impound her passport. She contended that the action violated her fundamental rights under Articles 21 (Right to Life and Personal Liberty), 19(1)(a) (Freedom of Speech and Expression), and 19(1)(g) (Right to Practice any Profession, or to carry on any Occupation, Trade or Business) of the Constitution. The key issues before the Court were:

  • Whether the impounding of Maneka Gandhi's passport under Section 10(3)(c) of the Passport Act, 1967, violated her right to personal liberty guaranteed under Article 21 of the Constitution.
  • Whether the phrase "procedure established by law" under Article 21 requires the procedure to be fair, just, and reasonable, not just any procedure enacted by law, thereby introducing the concept of procedural due process in Indian law.
  • Whether the right to travel abroad is part of the fundamental rights under Article 21, and consequently, whether the impounding of the passport infringed upon this right.
  • Whether the deprivation of the right to go abroad affects the freedom of speech and expression guaranteed under Article 19(1)(a).
  • Whether the deprivation of the right to go abroad affects the right to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade or business under Article 19(1)(g).
  • Whether the law and procedure established by it, which authorizes deprivation of personal liberty, should also meet the requirements of being fair, just, and reasonable, and not arbitrary.
  • Whether the lack of an opportunity for a hearing before the passport was impounded violated the principles of natural justice.

These issues raised in the Maneka Gandhi case required the Court to delve deeply into the interpretation of the Constitution and the fundamental rights it guarantees. The case stands as a cornerstone in Indian constitutional law, significantly expanding the scope and protection of individual liberties against arbitrary state action.

Petitioner’s Contention

In the landmark case of Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, 1978, the petitioner, Maneka Gandhi, raised several contentions challenging the constitutionality of the action taken by the government in impounding her passport and the provisions of the Passport Act, 1967, under which such action was taken. The key contentions made by the petitioner were:

Violation of Article 21: The petitioner contended that the impounding of her passport without giving her an opportunity to be heard was a violation of her right to personal liberty guaranteed under Article 21 of the Constitution of India. She argued that the right to travel abroad is an integral part of the right to personal liberty.

Procedural Due Process: The petitioner argued that the phrase "procedure established by law" under Article 21 of the Constitution must imply a fair, just, and reasonable procedure. She contended that the procedure followed in impounding her passport was arbitrary and unreasonable, thus failing the test of procedural due process.

Violation of Article 19(1)(a) and Article 19(1)(g): It was contended that the action of impounding the passport also violated her fundamental rights under Article 19(1)(a) (freedom of speech and expression) and Article 19(1)(g) (right to practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade, or business). The petitioner argued that the freedom to travel abroad is essential for the exercise of these rights.

Lack of Opportunity of Hearing: The petitioner contended that the government's action of impounding her passport without providing her an opportunity of hearing was against the principles of natural justice. She emphasized that a fair hearing is essential before any action that affects an individual’s rights can be taken.

Arbitrary Action under the Passport Act: The petitioner challenged the constitutionality of Section 10(3)(c) of the Passport Act, 1967, under which her passport was impounded. She argued that the section was too vague and allowed for arbitrary action without specifying the grounds or providing for a procedure that met the standards of fairness and reasonableness.

Through these contentions, the petitioner sought to challenge the legality of the government's action and the constitutional validity of the relevant provisions of the Passport Act. The case became a significant moment in Indian constitutional law, leading to a broader interpretation of fundamental rights and the establishment of procedural safeguards to protect those rights.

Respondents contentions

In the landmark case of Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, 1978, the respondent, the Government of India, defended its action of impounding Maneka Gandhi's passport and the constitutional validity of the Passport Act, 1967, especially Section 10(3)(c) under which the action was taken. The key contentions made by the respondent were:

Authority under Passport Act: The government argued that it had the authority under Section 10(3)(c) of the Passport Act, 1967, to impound a passport "in the interests of the general public." It contended that this provision granted it the necessary power to impound a passport without the need to disclose the reasons for such an action to the passport holder.

Procedure Established by Law: The respondent contended that the action taken was in accordance with the "procedure established by law," as required by Article 21 of the Constitution. It argued that since the Passport Act was a law enacted by the Parliament, any action taken under its provisions was by definition within the framework of a procedure established by law.

National Security and Public Interest: The government implied that certain situations, particularly those involving national security or the public interest, might necessitate action without prior notice or a hearing to the individual affected. It suggested that the need to safeguard the collective interest of the nation could outweigh individual rights in specific contexts.

Scope of Fundamental Rights: The respondent also argued about the scope of fundamental rights, particularly emphasizing that the right to go abroad is not a fundamental right guaranteed under the Constitution of India. Therefore, the restriction placed by impounding the passport did not infringe upon any constitutionally guaranteed fundamental right.

Reasonableness of the Law: The government defended the constitutionality of the Passport Act, arguing that the Act and its provisions, including those under which Maneka Gandhi's passport was impounded, were reasonable and did not violate any fundamental rights.

The government's defense was rooted in emphasizing the legality of its actions within the existing legal framework and the necessity of certain restrictions for the greater public good. However, the Supreme Court's judgment in this case significantly expanded the interpretation of fundamental rights, especially the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21, and set a precedent for the requirement of fairness, reasonableness, and procedural due process in the application of any law affecting these rights.

Judgment in Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, 1978

The judgment in Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, 1978, delivered by a seven-judge bench of the Supreme Court of India, is a cornerstone in the evolution of constitutional law in India, particularly in the realm of personal liberty and the interpretation of fundamental rights. The Court's ruling expanded the scope and content of Article 21 of the Constitution of India, which guarantees the right to life and personal liberty. The key aspects of the judgment are as follows:

Interpretation of Article 21: The Court held that the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 could not be restricted by any law unless that law prescribed a procedure which is fair, just, and reasonable. The mere enactment of a law prescribing some semblance of a procedure was not enough; the procedure itself had to withstand the scrutiny of being just, fair, and reasonable.

Right to Travel Abroad: The Court recognized that the right to travel abroad is part of the "personal liberty" guaranteed under Article 21. Thus, any law or action affecting the right to go abroad must also conform to the requirements of Article 21, including the prescription of a fair, just, and reasonable procedure.

Doctrine of Procedural Due Process: Importantly, the judgment introduced the concept of procedural due process in the interpretation of Article 21, borrowing from the American legal system. This was a significant departure from the previous position that had emphasized the principle of "procedure established by law" without delving into the fairness of the procedure itself.

Inter-relationship of Fundamental Rights: The Court observed that the fundamental rights enshrined in the Constitution are not mutually exclusive and must be read together. Specifically, it held that the law depriving a person of 'personal liberty' must not only comply with the procedure established by law but also meet the requirements of Articles 14 (equality before the law) and 19 (protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.). This meant that a law affecting personal liberty must also be just, fair, reasonable, and not arbitrary.

Section 10(3)(c) of the Passport Act, 1967: The Court scrutinized Section 10(3)(c) of the Passport Act, under which Maneka Gandhi's passport was impounded, and found that the section was vague and conferred arbitrary power on the authorities. It held that the right to be heard before one's passport is impounded is a part of the procedure established by law under Article 21.

Natural Justice: The judgment emphasized the importance of the principles of natural justice, particularly the right to be heard (audi alteram partem), and noted that these principles should be considered integral to any fair procedure under Article 21.

The Maneka Gandhi judgment is hailed for its progressive and liberal interpretation of the Constitution. It significantly broadened the scope of fundamental rights and established the importance of the dignity of the individual and the right to liberty. The case is often cited as a turning point in the jurisprudence relating to the interpretation of the Constitution of India, especially concerning the rights to life, liberty, and the principles of natural justice.

Expansion of Article 21: Before Maneka Gandhi’s case, the interpretation of Article 21 was fairly narrow, primarily focusing on the deprivation of life and personal liberty by the state. Post this judgment, the Article has been expansively interpreted to include a wide range of rights that are essential for enjoying life and liberty, such as the right to live with human dignity, the right to privacy, the right to environment, etc.

Preventive Detention and Personal Liberty: The judgment also had implications for laws related to preventive detention. It underscored the need for these laws to have procedural safeguards to prevent arbitrary detention, thereby enhancing the protection of personal liberty against state actions.

Golden Triangle of the Constitution: The judgment highlighted the interconnectivity between Articles 14, 19, and 21, which Justice Bhagwati referred to as the “golden triangle”. This interconnectedness ensures that any law infringing on personal liberty must also meet the standards of equality before the law and protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.

Judicial Review and Constitutional Interpretation: The case underscored the role of judicial review in protecting fundamental rights and set a precedent for a more dynamic and broad interpretation of the Constitution. It reinforced the judiciary’s role as a guardian of the fundamental rights of citizens against arbitrary state action.

Impact on Other Laws: Following this judgment, various laws and practices have been scrutinized and challenged based on the principles laid down in this case. It has had a profound impact on the development of laws related to privacy, environmental protection, and the rights of accused persons, among others.

Global Influence: The Maneka Gandhi case is often cited in comparative constitutional discussions for its innovative approach to interpreting personal liberty and procedural due process. It has influenced the development of human rights jurisprudence beyond India as well.

In Summary

The Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India case represents a critical moment in India’s constitutional history, where the Supreme Court took a significant step towards protecting individual rights against the backdrop of state authority. By insisting that laws infringing on personal liberty must not only follow a procedure but also be just, fair, and reasonable, the Court ensured that the Constitution is a living document, capable of addressing the needs of a changing society. This judgment is a testament to the dynamic nature of constitutional law and its ability to adapt to new challenges while upholding the principles of justice and equality.

Article 21 of the Indian Constitution

Article 21 of the Indian Constitution is one of the most fundamental rights under the part of fundamental rights guaranteed by the Constitution. It provides the bedrock for a wide array of rights relating to life and personal liberty. The text of Article 21 reads:

"No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to the procedure established by law."

This simple yet profound statement has been the basis for a vast body of jurisprudence that has expanded the scope of fundamental rights in India. Initially, Article 21 was interpreted narrowly by the courts, focusing primarily on the physical act of detaining or incarcerating individuals without the due process of law. However, over the years, particularly after the landmark judgment in the case of Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India (1978), the interpretation of Article 21 has been expanded significantly.

Expanded Interpretation of Article 21

The Supreme Court of India, through its dynamic and expansive interpretation, has read several rights into Article 21, thereby broadening its scope far beyond what was originally envisaged. Some of these rights include:

Right to Live with Human Dignity: The Court has held that the right to life under Article 21 includes the right to live with human dignity and all that goes along with it, such as adequate nutrition, clothing, shelter, and the right to carry out functions and activities as a being free from any kind of bondage.

Right to Privacy: Recognized as an integral part of the right to life and personal liberty, the right to privacy encompasses various aspects including bodily integrity, personal autonomy, protection of personal information, etc. This was emphatically affirmed in the landmark case of Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) vs Union Of India And Ors. (2017).

Right to Education: Through the 86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002, the right to education has been recognized as a fundamental right under Article 21A, which provides for free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years.

Right to Health and Medical Care: The courts have held that the right to health is integral to the right to life. The government has a constitutional obligation to provide health facilities.

Right to a Clean Environment: Including the right to a pollution-free water and air and protection against hazardous industries.

Right against Solitary Confinement, Handcuffing & Bar Fetters, and Protection from Torture: The Supreme Court has laid down guidelines to protect the rights of prisoners and detainees, underscoring that Article 21 applies to them as well.

Right to Legal Aid: Recognized as a fundamental aspect of fair procedure, the right to free legal aid is an essential element of reasonable, fair, and just procedure under Article 21.

Right to Speedy Trial: Emphasizing that justice delayed is justice denied, the courts have held that the right to a speedy trial is an essential part of the right to life and personal liberty.

Right to Information: Although not directly under Article 21, the Right to Information Act, 2005, has been seen as an extension of the right to freedom of speech and expression, which complements the right to life and personal liberty.

The transformative interpretation of Article 21 reflects the Indian judiciary's commitment to the protection of the fundamental rights of individuals, ensuring that the Constitution remains a living document responsive to the needs of changing times.

Procedure established by law v. due process

The comparative analysis of "Procedure Established by Law" versus "Due Process of Law" within the context of Article 21 of the Indian Constitution is crucial for understanding the evolution of the legal framework governing the right to life and personal liberty in India. These principles, while seemingly similar, originate from different legal systems and have distinct implications for the protection of individual rights.

Procedure Established by Law

Origin: This principle is directly adopted in the Indian Constitution under Article 21, which states that no person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to "procedure established by law." This means that the state can deprive someone of their life or personal liberty if such deprivation is carried out according to a law that is validly made. The focus here is on the legality of the law and not necessarily on its fairness or justness.

Interpretation in India: Initially, the Indian judiciary interpreted Article 21 narrowly, primarily focusing on whether there was a law that authorized the deprivation of life or personal liberty. If there was a law and it followed the correct procedure, the courts would not go into the question of whether the law was just, fair, or equitable. The landmark judgment in the case of A.K. Gopalan vs. The State of Madras (1950) is an example of this approach.

Due Process of Law

Origin: The concept of "Due Process of Law" is deeply rooted in the American Constitution, which ensures that no person is deprived of life, liberty, or property without "due process of law." This principle not only requires legality (a law that governs the deprivation) but also insists that the law must be just, fair, and reasonable. It incorporates both substantive and procedural fairness, meaning that the courts have the power to review the content and procedures of the law.

Interpretation in India: For a long time, the Indian legal system did not explicitly adopt the "due process" principle due to its absence in the text of the Constitution. However, the interpretation of Article 21 significantly changed with the landmark judgment of Maneka Gandhi vs. Union of India (1978). In this case, the Supreme Court held that the "procedure established by law" under Article 21 must be "right, just, and fair," effectively incorporating elements of the "due process" principle into Indian jurisprudence. This judgment broadened the scope of Article 21 and provided a basis for the judiciary to review the fairness, justness, and reasonableness of the laws and procedures.

Comparative Analysis

Scope of Judicial Review: The primary difference between the two principles lies in the extent of judicial review. "Procedure established by law" allows for limited judicial review focusing on the existence of law and its adherence to procedures. In contrast, "due process of law" enables a more extensive judicial review, allowing courts to examine the fairness, justness, and reasonableness of the law itself.

Protection of Rights: "Due process" offers a higher degree of protection for individual rights since it requires laws to not only be procedurally correct but also substantively fair and just. This ensures a balance between the state's power to deprive individuals of their rights and the protection of those rights.

Evolution in Indian Context: While the Indian Constitution originally adopted the "procedure established by law" model, the judiciary's interpretative shift towards incorporating elements of "due process" has significantly enhanced the protection of rights under Article 21.

In conclusion, the evolution of the interpretation of Article 21 from a strict "procedure established by law" to a more inclusive approach that embodies elements of "due process of law" marks a significant development in the protection of life and personal liberty in India. This shift has enabled the judiciary to play a more active role in ensuring that laws are not only procedurally correct but also fair, just, and reasonable, thereby offering greater protection to individual rights.

The golden triangle concept and Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, 1978

The "Golden Triangle" concept in Indian constitutional law refers to the interconnectedness of three fundamental rights guaranteed by the Constitution of India: Article 14 (Right to Equality), Article 19 (Right to Freedom), including freedoms of speech, assembly, association, movement, residence, and profession, and Article 21 (Right to Life and Personal Liberty). This concept emphasizes that these rights are not isolated silos but interdependent, forming a triangle that is essential for the core of human rights protection in India. The concept of the Golden Triangle becomes particularly significant in the context of the landmark judgment of Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, 1978.

Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, 1978: A Landmark Case

In the Maneka Gandhi case, the Supreme Court of India expanded the interpretation of the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 of the Constitution. The case arose when Maneka Gandhi's passport was impounded by the government under the Passport Act of 1967, and she was not given a reason for this action, which she challenged as a violation of her fundamental rights under Articles 14, 19, and 21.

Judgment and the Golden Triangle

The Supreme Court, in its judgment, made several key observations that have had a lasting impact on Indian constitutional law:

Expansion of Article 21: The Court held that the right to live is not merely the right to exist but encompasses the right to live with dignity, and therefore, it includes within its ambit the right to travel abroad. The Court stated that the procedure established by law to deprive someone of their life or personal liberty must be right, just, and fair and not arbitrary, fanciful, or oppressive.

Interconnection of Articles 14, 19, and 21: The Court observed that the interpretation of Article 21 must be in harmony with Articles 14 and 19. This means that any law that prescribes a procedure for depriving a person of their life or personal liberty must also meet the requirements of Articles 14 (equality before the law and equal protection of the laws) and 19 (protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.). Thus, the concept of the Golden Triangle was emphasized, highlighting the interrelation and mutual reinforcement among these fundamental rights.

Widening the Scope of Personal Liberty: The judgment significantly widened the scope of personal liberty, stating that any law which encroaches upon personal liberty must not only stand the test of Article 21 but must also pass the tests laid down by Articles 14 and 19.

The Maneka Gandhi judgment is celebrated for its progressive interpretation of fundamental rights and for establishing the concept of the Golden Triangle, which has since been used to enrich the understanding of fundamental rights and their application in various cases. It underscored the principle that the deprivation of personal liberty must pass the scrutiny of not just one, but three fundamental rights, ensuring a more comprehensive protection of individual liberties against state actions.

The A.K. Gopalan Case

The A.K. Gopalan case (A.K. Gopalan vs. State of Madras, 1950) was a landmark judgment by the Supreme Court of India, which dealt with the question of preventive detention and the scope of personal liberty under Article 21 of the Indian Constitution. A.K. Gopalan, a communist leader, was detained under the Preventive Detention Act of 1950. He challenged the validity of his detention, arguing that it violated his fundamental rights under Articles 19 (Freedom of Speech and Expression) and 21 (Protection of Life and Personal Liberty) of the Constitution.

In its judgment, the Supreme Court took a narrow view of Article 21 and held that the right to life and personal liberty could be deprived by a law as long as it followed the procedure established by law, without examining whether the law was just, fair, or reasonable. The Court also held that each fundamental right in the Constitution operated in isolation, meaning the law of preventive detention need not satisfy the requirements of Article 19 if it was a valid law under Article 21.

Overruling in the Maneka Gandhi Case

The A.K. Gopalan case's interpretation of Article 21 and its principle of compartmentalization of fundamental rights were effectively overruled by the Supreme Court in the landmark judgment of Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India (1978). In the Maneka Gandhi case, the Supreme Court adopted a more expansive and integrated approach towards the interpretation of fundamental rights, particularly Articles 19, 21, and 14.

The Court held that the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 could not be curtailed by any law unless it was fair, just, and reasonable, not just procedurally but substantively as well. It established that the procedure established by law must also be right, just, and fair, and not arbitrary, fanciful, or oppressive. Moreover, the Court declared that Articles 19 and 21 are not mutually exclusive and that a law depriving a person of 'personal liberty' has to meet the challenges of both Articles 19 and 21. Thus, the rights under Articles 14, 19, and 21 were seen as interconnected and reinforcing each other, forming the concept of the "Golden Triangle."

This significant shift meant that the rights to life and personal liberty, equality before the law, and the six freedoms guaranteed under Article 19 were to be read together and harmoniously, ensuring a broader protection of fundamental rights. This judgment marked a turning point in the interpretation of fundamental rights in India, moving from a narrow interpretation to a more dynamic and expansive one, thus overruling the precedent set by the A.K. Gopalan case.

Conclusion

The Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, 1978 judgment is a watershed in the evolution of constitutional law in India, significantly transforming the landscape of fundamental rights and their enforcement. By broadening the interpretation of Article 21 and integrating it with Articles 14 and 19, the Supreme Court not only fortified the right to life and personal liberty but also established a holistic framework for assessing state action against the touchstone of fairness, reasonableness, and non-arbitrariness. This case underscored the dynamic and adaptive nature of the Constitution, emphasizing that fundamental rights are not siloed guarantees but an interwoven network of liberties that together encapsulate the essence of a dignified human existence.

The introduction of a quasi-due process standard for evaluating laws and procedures affecting life and personal liberty marked a significant judicial innovation, aligning Indian jurisprudence more closely with global human rights norms. The judgment's insistence on the quality, and not just the existence, of a law as a prerequisite for restricting fundamental rights has had far-reaching implications for civil liberties, governance, and the rule of law in India.

However, the judgment's broad scope and the discretionary power it vests in the judiciary also invite reflection on the limits of judicial intervention in legislative and executive domains. While it empowers courts to be guardians of the Constitution and protectors of individual rights, there is a perennial challenge in balancing judicial activism with judicial restraint to maintain the delicate equilibrium envisioned in the doctrine of separation of powers.

In conclusion, Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, 1978, is emblematic of the transformative potential of judicial review and the pivotal role of the judiciary in shaping the contours of constitutional democracy. It reaffirms the primacy of fundamental rights as the cornerstone of democratic governance and the indispensable role of the judiciary in ensuring that these rights are not just nominal but effective and enforceable. As India continues to evolve and face new challenges, the principles enshrined in this landmark judgment will undoubtedly continue to serve as a guiding beacon for the protection and expansion of fundamental rights.

COMMENTS

Name

10th Pass Govt Job,7,125 crpc,1,12th Paas Jobs,3,138 Ni Act,1,2024 National Lok Adalat Schedule,1,3 Years LL.B Colleges in West Bengal,1,3 Years LLB Course in India,1,3 Years LLB Course in Kalyani University,1,3 Years LLB Govt Colleges in India,1,3D Designer,1,4 year bed course,1,AAI Junior Executive Recruitment 2024,1,Acts,15,Admission,43,Agniveer,1,AIAPGET 2024,1,AIBE Exam,1,Aibe exam language,1,Aibe exam pattern,1,Aibe exam syllabus,1,Air Force Agniveer,1,aligarh muslim university case,1,aligarh muslim university issue,1,Aligarh Muslim University Minority Status Case,1,aligarh muslim university minority status case analysis,1,All Indian Government Exams after Graduation,1,amazon,1,Amazon Jobs,1,amazon seller,1,Amazon Work From Home Jobs,1,Amazon Work From Home Jobs For Freshers,1,Amex Law College,1,Amex Law College Fees,1,AP Ed CET 2024,1,AP PGCET 2024,1,AP PGECET 2024,1,APLAWCET/ APPGLCET 2024,1,application form for gun license,1,Apprentice,6,Are CV resume and bio data the same,1,Arms,1,Arms Act 1959,1,Arms Rules,1,Army Jobs,1,Article 21,1,Ashneer Grover Net Worth,1,Bail in bailable offences,1,Bail in non-bailable offences,1,Bailable and Non Bailable Offences,1,Balfour v Balfour Case,1,Bank Job Vacancy 2024,2,Bank Jobs,4,Bankura District Court Recruitment,1,Basic Structure Doctrine,1,BBMP Group D Jobs,1,BCECE 2024,1,Beautician Courses,1,Bed,1,Bed Admission,2,BEL Recruitment 2024,1,Best Formal Reply for Thank You,1,Best Reply For Thank You For Every Situation,1,Best Reply For Thank You To A Boy,1,Best Reply For Thank You To A Girl,1,Bharat Ratna to Lal Krishna Advani,1,BharatGPT Hanooman AI,1,Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita 2023,3,Bihar Bed,2,Bihar Bed CET Syllabus,1,Bihar Bed Entrance Exam,1,Bihar Bed Exam,1,Bihar Bed Exam Pattern,1,Bihar Bed syllabus,2,Bihar ITI CAT 2024,1,bilkis bano,1,Bilkis Bano case,1,bilkis bano case convicts,1,bilkis bano case news,1,bilkis bano gujarat,1,bilkis bano news,1,bilkis bano supreme court,1,Bills,2,Binoda Law College,1,Binoda Law College admission fees,1,Binoda Law College admission process,1,Binoda Law College eligibility,1,Binoda Law College seats,1,BioAsia Summit 2024,1,Biography,4,Blog writer job,1,Blogging,1,BNS,1,BOI Officer Recruitment 2024,1,BPSC,1,BPSC Agriculture Department Various Post Recruitment 2024,1,BPSC School Head teacher recruitment 2024,1,Brainware University,1,Brainware University llb fees,1,BSPHCL Recruitment 2024,1,Burdwan University,1,Burdwan University 3 Years LL.B Admission,1,Business,3,business tips,1,business without money,1,Byjus Online teaching job,2,caa,1,Calcutta University,3,Calcutta University BA LL.B admission,1,Calcutta University BA LLb,1,Calcutta University BA LLb exam pattern,1,Calcutta University BA LLb syllabus,1,Calcutta University BA LLB Total Seats,1,Career,8,Career in Law,3,career tips,1,Carrer,2,Cases Related to UCC,1,cash earning sites,1,CBSE 10th Syllabus,1,Central Govt Jobs,8,Central Govt Schemes,1,CG SET Exam,1,CG SET Exam date,1,CG SET Syllabus,2,CGPEB Hostel Superintendent Recruitment 2024,1,Chandigarh TGT Recruitment 2024,1,Chapter 1,1,Citizenship,1,Citizenship Amendment Act,1,Civil judge job,1,CJI D Y Chandrachud,1,CJI DY Chandrachud Highlighted Four Issues in Legal Profession,1,CLAT 2025,1,CLW Act Apprentice Recruitment,1,CMAT 2024,1,Combined Medical Services,1,common interview questions,1,Composition and Functions of the Supreme Court of India,1,Composition of Lok Adalat,1,Content Writer,4,Content Writer Job,3,Content Writing Jobs,4,Copy Paste Jobs,2,Copy Paste Jobs Without Investment,1,Courses,6,Cover Letter,1,Cover Letter for Freshers,1,Crimes,1,CTET July 2024,1,CTET Syllabus 2024,1,CUET UG 2024,1,Current Affairs,9,Cyber Cell of Police,1,daily earning website,1,Data Analyst,1,Data Analyst Interview Questions,1,Data Analyst Job,1,Data Analyst Job Qualifications and Skills,1,Data Analyst Jobs,1,Data Analytics Course,1,Data Entry Jobs,5,Data Entry Operator,1,Data Protection and Data Privacy Laws in India,1,data protection laws,1,Defence Jobs,1,Delhi University,2,difference,1,difference between a CV and a bio,1,Difference between Advocate Lawyer,1,Difference Between CV Resume and Bio Data,1,Difference Between I.P.C and Cr.PC,1,Difference between Judgment Decree and Order,1,Differences Between Democracy and Republic,1,Digital Marketing Courses,1,Digital Marketing Jobs,1,distance university llb,1,download online stamp paper,1,DPDP Act,1,DRDO Apprentice 2024,1,dropshipping business,1,DSSSB Delhi District Court Jobs in Delhi,1,DU LL.B Entrance Exam,1,DU LLB Entrance Exam Pattern,1,DY Chandrachud,1,e Stamp Paper,1,e-Stamp Paper download,1,e-Stamp Paper registration,1,earn money,2,earn money online,15,Earning Websites,2,Education,26,Electoral bonds,2,Engineering Jobs,11,English,1,English Skill,16,Entry Level Digital Marketing Jobs,1,Event Planner,1,Exam Schedule of UPSC,1,Exams,2,Explained Law,1,Fali S Nariman Quotes for Law Students,1,Fali Sam Nariman,1,Farewell Speech,1,Farmers Protest 2024,1,Fee Structure for Symbiosis Law School,1,female freedom fighters of india,1,FIR Quashing,1,fir quashing cases,1,fir quashing fees,1,fir quashing format,1,fir quashing grounds,1,fir quashing process,1,fir quashing section,1,Fiverr,1,Free Online Courses,1,Free Online Courses With Certificates,1,freedom fighters,1,Freedom of speech,1,Freelance Jobs,1,Freelance Websites for Beginners,1,Freelancing,1,Freelancing Sites,1,Fundamental Duties,1,Fundamental Rights of India,1,Gaganyaan Mission,1,Government Exams for Law Students,1,government law colleges,1,GPAT 2024,1,GPAT 2024 Exam Date,1,GPAT Exam Pattern,1,GPAT Syllabus,1,Graphic Designer Jobs,1,Gujarat Police Bharti 2024,1,Gujarat Police Bharti Constable Syllabus,1,gujarat riots bilkis bano,1,gun license,1,Gyanvapi case,1,Gyanvapi Mosque case,1,Habeas Corpus,1,Habeas Corpus case,1,Habeas Corpus Meaning,1,HAMA 1956,1,Handcuffing Case Laws,1,Handcuffing Judgments,1,Handcuffing Law in India,1,High Income Skills,1,High Income Skills without Degree,1,Hindi Blog,5,Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act 1956,1,Hindu Law,1,Hindu Law Notes,1,history,1,History of Indian Banks,1,History of UCC,1,How are you doing Reply,1,How are you doing reply formal,1,How are you doing responses,1,How Are You Reply,1,How Are You Reply To Boy,1,How Are You Reply To Friends,1,How Are You Reply To Girl,1,How Do You Do Reply,1,How do you do reply in chat to a girl,1,How Have You Been,1,How have you been answer,1,How have you been reply,1,how to,2,how to answer,1,How to become a Barrister in India,1,How to Become a Lawyer or Advocate,1,How to get a Gun License in India,1,How to improve legal drafting skills,1,how to introduce yourself in an interview,1,How To Introduce Yourself In English,1,How to Obtain Gun License In India,1,How To Procure A Gun In India,1,How to reply how are you doing,1,how to send legal notice,1,How To Start A Speech,1,How to write your skills on a Resume,1,How Was your Day Reply,1,HP LEET 2024,1,hp leet exam date,1,hp leet exam pattern,1,hp leet syllabus,1,HP PAT 2024,1,HPCL Engineering Professional 2024 Online Form,1,hr interview questions and answers,1,IB Recruitment 2024,1,IB Recruitment 2024 Eligibility,1,IB Recruitment 2024 Last date,1,IB Recruitment 2024 Vacancy,1,IGNOU,8,IGNOU Admission,1,IGNOU Assignment Front Page,1,IGNOU Assignment Status,1,IGNOU Distance MBA Admission,1,IGNOU Exam Form June 2024,1,IGNOU Exam Time Table June 2024,1,IGNOU Exams,1,IGNOU Front Page,1,IGNOU Hall Ticket,1,IGNOU Latest Updates,1,IISER Admission Important Dates,1,IISER Application Form 2024,1,IISER Entrance Exam 2024 Syllabus,1,improve english,1,Income Tax,5,Income Tax Return,5,Income Tax Slabs,1,Indian Army Recruitment,1,Indian Constitution,10,Indian Contract Act,3,Indian Contract Act 1872,2,Indian Contract Act Section 6,1,Indian Laws,24,Indian Railway Jobs,1,Indian Stamp Bill 2023,1,indian women,1,Injunction,1,Injunction Act in India,1,International Womens day 2024,1,International Womens day Theme 2024,1,interview,1,Interview Questions and Answers,2,ipc 377,1,IT Act,1,ITI Jobs,7,ITR 1,1,ITR Filing Last Date,1,Jacob Elordi,1,Jacob Elordi faces allegations of alleged assault in Australia,1,Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya Teacher Recruitment,1,JEE Main Syllabus,1,Jharkhand High Court Recruitment 2024,1,Jharkhand launches Widow Remarriage Incentive Scheme,1,JIPMAT 2024,1,JIS University,1,JIS University Law College,1,JIS University llb fees,1,Job interview,1,job interview questions and answers,1,Jobs in Bihar,4,Jobs in Chhattisgarh,1,Jobs in Gujarat,1,Jobs in Jharkhand,1,Jobs in Karnataka,1,Jobs in Kerala,1,Jobs in Madhya Pradesh,1,Jobs in Meghalaya,1,Jobs in Rajasthan,4,Jobs in Telangana,1,Jobs in Uttar Pradesh,2,Jobs in West Bengal,2,Join Indian Army,1,JRSET College of Law,1,jrset college of law admission,1,jrset college of law chakdaha nadia,1,jrset college of law contact no,1,jrset college of law courses,1,jrset college of law fees,1,Judgement on Electoral Bonds Scheme 2024,1,Judgments,10,Juice jacking,1,Jurisdiction of Supreme Court of India,1,Justice Indu Malhota,1,k8school,1,Kalyani University,1,KARTET 2024,1,KEAM 2024,1,kerala psc clerk,1,Kerala PSC Office Attendant,1,Kerala SET Exam,1,Kerala TET 2024,1,Kerala TET Exam,1,KPSC Group C Job,1,KPSC JE Recruitment,1,KPSC Recruitment 2024 Notification,1,KPSC Surveyor Recruitment 2024,1,KVS Admission 2024,1,Labour Law of India,2,Ladakh Protest,1,ladies freedom fighters of india,1,Lakhpati Didi Yojana,1,Lal Krishna Advani,1,Latest Government Jobs,76,Latest News,4,Latest Police Recruitment,1,Law Colleges,18,Law Notes,2,learn english,1,Legal Notice,1,Legitimacy To Child Born Outside Formal Marriage,1,Librarian Courses,1,List of bailable and non bailable offences,1,List of Chief Justice of India,1,List of the documents we should check before buying any land,1,LLB College in West Bengal,1,LLB Colleges in Bihar,1,llb for distance university graduates,1,LLB Jobs,4,Lok Adalat,1,Lok Adalat 2024,1,Lok Adalat scheduled,1,mah cet,1,MAH CET 3 years llb entrance,1,MAH CET apply online,1,mah cet law,1,MAH CET Law Entrance Exam cut off,1,MAH CET Law Entrance Exam Eligibility,1,MAH CET Law Entrance Exam pattern,1,MAH CET Law Entrance Exam syllabus,1,MAH CET LLB 2024,1,Mahtari Vandana Yojanaa,1,make money,2,make money ideas,2,make money online,8,Maneka Gandhi v Union of India 1978,1,Maryam Nawaz Biography,1,Mast App,1,Mast App Download,1,MBA Jobs,1,Meaning of How Are You Doing,1,Medical courses,1,medical courses after 12th,1,Medical Courses Without NEET,1,Medical Exams,1,Meghalaya Police Recruitment 2024,1,MH CET 2024,1,MIES RM Law College 3 Years LLB Admission,1,MIES RM Law College eligibility,1,MIES RM Law College fees,1,MIES RM Law College review,1,Minimum Support Price MSP,1,Minimum Wages Act 1948,1,money earning sites,2,money earning websites,1,Most Common Reply For Thanks,1,Motivational Quotes,1,Motivational Quotes for Students,1,MPSET Exam 2024,1,MPSET Exam Syllabus and MPSET Exam Pattern,1,MrBeast,1,MSP Law,1,nalsa,1,National Science Day 2024,1,Nationalization of Banks in India,1,Naval Dockyard Mumbai Apprentice Online Form 2024,1,Navtej Singh Johar v UOI,1,NCET 2024,1,neet exam,1,NEET PG 2024,1,New Hit and Run Law,1,Non Bailable Warrant,1,NPCIL Executive Trainee Recruitment,1,NUHM Hooghly Recruitment 2024,1,NVS Recruitment 2024,1,Offences Relating to Marriage,1,OICL AO Recruitment 2024,1,One Nation One Election,1,Online Business in India,1,Online Coding Teacher,1,Online Complaint Procedure,1,Online Courses,1,Online Courses With Certificates,1,Online Data Entry Jobs From Home,3,online earning platform,1,Online Earning Websites,1,online job,1,online jobs,64,Online Jobs For Students,1,Online Jobs From Home,3,Online Jobs without Investment,1,Online Teacher Jobs,3,Online Teaching Job,2,Online Teaching Job at BYJUS,1,Online Teaching Jobs,14,online tutor,2,Online Typing Jobs,2,Online Typing Jobs from Home,2,OSSC CHSL Recruitment,1,Parliament,1,Part time jobs,11,Part Time Online Teaching Jobs From Home,2,Patanjali,1,Patna Law College,1,Patna Law College admission,1,Patna Law College eligibility,1,Patna Law College llb admission,1,Patna Law College llb exam pattern,1,Patna Law College llb syllabus,1,Patna University,1,Patna University academic calendar 2024,1,PCPNDT Act1994,1,Personal Freedom Social justice,1,personality development,1,Physics Wallah,1,PlanetSpark,1,PM Modi,1,PM Modi Yojnaa,2,PM Vishwakarma Yojana,1,Police Jobs,5,Pradhan Mantri Aawas Yojana,1,Prenuptial Agreement in India,1,preply,1,PREVENTION OF UNFAIR MEANS BILL 2024,1,Print e Stamp Paper Online,1,Privacy and Data Protection Law in India,1,Privacy Laws in India,1,Prohibition of Sex Selection,1,Proofreader Jobs,1,proofreading jobs,3,PSC,1,PSC Jobs,1,PSSSB JE Recruitment 2024 Apply Online,1,Pune,1,Punjab Police Constable Syllabus,1,Punjab Police Recruitment 2024,1,pw,1,Question Papers,1,Quotes,1,Railway Apprentice 2024,1,Railway Group D Recruitment 2024,1,Railway jobs,7,Railway Recruitment 2024,1,Rajasthan APO Previous Year Paper,1,Rajasthan APO Salary 2024,1,Rajasthan APO Syllabus 2024,1,Rajasthan Civil Judge Recruitment,1,Rajasthan Pre DElEd Notification,1,Rajasthan PTET 2024,1,Rajasthan RPSC Public Relation Officer PRO Recruitment 2024,1,Rajasthan Safai Karamchari Recruitment 2024,1,Refer and Earn Apps,1,Register Cyber Crime Complaint,1,remote jobs,18,Right of Private Defence Under BNS 2023,1,Right to privacy,1,Right to privacy cases,1,Right to privacy gdpr,1,Right to privacy in india,1,Right to privacy law,1,Right To Property,1,RPF Constable Syllabus 2024,1,RPF SI Recruitment 2024,1,RPSC agriculture officer recruitment 2024,1,RPSC APO Vacancy 2024,1,RPSC PTI and Librarian Recruitment 2024,1,rrb alp,1,rrb alp 2024 job,1,rrb alp recruitment,1,RRB RPF Constable Recruitment 2024,1,RRB Technician Recruitment 2024,1,RRC Group D Recruitment,1,RSMSSB Junior Instructor Recruitment 2024,1,RSMSSB Rajasthan Stenographer Recruitment 2024,1,Salary,2,Sarkari Job,3,Sarkari Result,2,Sarkari Yojnaa,4,Sarsuna Law College,1,Sarsuna Law College courses,1,Sarsuna Law College fees,1,Sarsuna Law College location,1,Satish Ragde vs State of Maharashtra,1,Section 10 of Indian Contract Act explanation,1,Section 11 of Indian Contract Act,1,Section 138 of Negotiable Instruments Act,1,Section 2 of Indian Contact Act 1872,1,Section 6,1,sell online,1,Selvi vs State of Karnataka Case,1,SET Exams,1,Sexual Offence and Assault Against Woman and Child,1,Shabnam vs. State of Uttar Pradesh,1,Shyambazar Law College,1,Side Hustle Ideas,1,Simplilearn,1,SKAIL,1,Slat exam,1,Snehangshu Kanta Acharya Institute of Law fees,1,Snehangshu Kanta Acharya Institute of Law SKAIL,1,South East Central Railway Act Apprentice Recruitment,1,South East Central Railway Apprentice Online Form,1,South East Central Railway Trade Apprentice 2024 Online Form,1,spoken english,1,SSC,4,SSC CGL 2024,1,SSC CHSL 2024,1,SSC CHSL Syllabus and Exam Pattern,1,SSC CPO 2024,1,SSC JE 2024,1,SSC JE Salary 2024,1,SSC JE Syllabus and Exam Pattern,1,SSC Jobs,3,SSC Junior Engineer Recruitment 2024,1,SSC Selection Post 12 Recruitment,1,Stay Order,1,Stay order definition,1,Stay order time limit,1,Stay order vs Injunction,1,Step by Step Procedures to File a Cyber Crime Complaint,1,Sudha Murty Nominated To Rajya Sabha,1,Suo Moto,1,Suo Moto in Indian Law,1,Supreme Court,1,Supreme Court 75th Anniversary,1,Supreme Court Building Fund Allocation,1,Surendranath Law College,1,Surendranath Law College Admission,1,Surendranath Law College Fees,1,Surrogacy in India,1,Survey Sites,1,Syllabus,15,Symbiosis Law Admission Test 2024,1,Symbiosis Law Admission Test Eligibility,1,Symbiosis Law School,1,Take Care Reply,1,Tax,6,tcs career,1,tcs entru level jobs,1,TCS Jobs for Freshers,1,Teaching Jobs,14,Technology,1,Telangana High Court Recruitment,1,Telecom Bill 2023,1,Tell me about yourself,1,tell me about yourself answer,1,tell me about yourself examples,1,tell me about yourself interview,1,tell me about yourself sample answers,1,tell me something about yourself,1,Tezpur Government Law College,1,The Digital Personal Data Protection Bill 2023,1,The Kesavananda Bharti case,1,The Places of Worship act,1,The Places of Worship Special Provisions Act 1991,1,The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act 2006,1,THE PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS BILL 2024,1,Tips of Legal Drafting,1,TN TRB Assistant Professor Recruitment 2024,1,TNPSC CCSE Recruitment,1,TNSET 2024,1,top 10,1,top 10 freedom fighters of india,1,Top 11 Law Colleges in India without CLAT,1,TS LAWCET 2024,1,ts lawcet exam date,1,Ts lawcet exam pattern,1,ts lawcet last date,1,ts lawcet syllabus,1,TS LPCET 2024,1,Types of bail,1,Types of ITR Forms,1,Types of Writs,1,Typing Jobs,3,UCC,1,ugc net,1,ugc net 2024,1,ugc net age limit,1,ugc net eligibility,1,UGC NET Exam,1,ugc net exam date,1,ugc net exam pattern,1,ugc net full form,1,ugc net syllabus,1,Unacademy,1,Uniform Civil Code,1,Uniform Civil Code in Goa,1,University,3,University Law College Utkal University,1,UP HJS Recruitment 2024,1,Upcoming Bank Jobs,1,Upcoming Railway Vacancy,1,UPMRC Recruitment 2024,1,UPPSC Agriculture Services,1,UPSC Calendar 2025,1,UPSC CMS 2024,1,UPSC CMS Exam Pattern,1,UPSC CMS Salary,1,UPSC CMS Syllabus,2,UPSC IES ISS 2024,1,UPSC IES ISS Syllabus,1,UPSC Jobs,2,UPSSSC JE Recruitment 2024,1,UPSSSC Junior Analyst Recruitment 2024,1,Uttarakhand Cooperative Bank Recruitment 2024,1,Uttarakhand UCC,1,Uttarakhand Uniform Civil Code,1,Uttarakhand Uniform Civil Code Bill 2024,1,Uttarakhand’s Uniform Civil Code (UCC) Bill,1,Vakalatnama,1,Vakalatnama Fees,1,Vakalatnama Format,1,Vakalatnama Rules,1,Vishnu Rambhhaji Harishchandre vs Bar Council Of India case,1,Void and Voidable Marriage in Hindu Law,1,Wapcos,1,WAPCOS Recruitment,1,Watch Video and Earn Money,1,WB JECA 2024,1,WB JECA Exam Date,1,WB JECA Registration,1,WB JECA Syllabus,1,WB Police Constable Recruitment 2024,2,WB police sub inspector recruitment 2024,1,West Bengal ITI,1,wfh,2,What do you do reply for college students,1,what is bilkis bano case,1,what is caa,1,What is freelancing,1,What is ITR,1,What is legal notice,1,Which ITR Should I File,1,Women Freedom Fighters of India,1,Women Reservation Bill,1,WordPress Developer,1,work from home,6,Work From Home Jobs,21,writer job,1,Writs,2,
ltr
item
Barristery.in: Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, 1978
Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, 1978
Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, 1978 is a landmark judgment by the Supreme Court of India that had a profound impact on the understanding and interpr
https://blogger.googleusercontent.com/img/b/R29vZ2xl/AVvXsEgCNIkmj2ggZTs9usQfuDDtgWZahHBQfx7CyVNrrB1igwnKyqFNwT9WLQIPl3kCy9tdP7xwEE-ENQYelxhnP_FPkqC7Ezmmkx98E0CASM328VXaJ7YZmSstxIVvwmoPeaZFR3U7WXKSVdDvlGaC0WIDVd6HD8AdorfQcxACmihZh_WTf8_awO_iTioh/s16000/How%20to%20Answer%20%E2%80%9CTell%20Me%20About%20Yourself%E2%80%9D%20(78).png
https://blogger.googleusercontent.com/img/b/R29vZ2xl/AVvXsEgCNIkmj2ggZTs9usQfuDDtgWZahHBQfx7CyVNrrB1igwnKyqFNwT9WLQIPl3kCy9tdP7xwEE-ENQYelxhnP_FPkqC7Ezmmkx98E0CASM328VXaJ7YZmSstxIVvwmoPeaZFR3U7WXKSVdDvlGaC0WIDVd6HD8AdorfQcxACmihZh_WTf8_awO_iTioh/s72-c/How%20to%20Answer%20%E2%80%9CTell%20Me%20About%20Yourself%E2%80%9D%20(78).png
Barristery.in
https://www.barristery.in/2024/02/maneka-gandhi-v-union-of-india-1978.html
https://www.barristery.in/
https://www.barristery.in/
https://www.barristery.in/2024/02/maneka-gandhi-v-union-of-india-1978.html
true
8524615770953786617
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content